Welcome!

@BigDataExpo Authors: SmartBear Blog, Liz McMillan, Pat Romanski, William Schmarzo, Yeshim Deniz

Related Topics: @BigDataExpo, Java IoT, Linux Containers, @DevOpsSummit

@BigDataExpo: Article

A Short History of Programming | @DevOpsSummit #Java #AI #ML #DevOps

It can be hard to grasp what’s happening in the world of programming today without a solid grounding in how we got here

Code Compiled: A Short History of Programming - Part I
By Omed Habib

There are more than 2,500 documented programming languages with customizations, dialects, branches, and forks that expand that number by an order of magnitude. In comparison, the Ethnologue: Languages of the World research officially recognizes 7,097 official language groups that humans use to communicate with each other all around the world.

It can be hard to grasp what’s happening in the world of programming today without a solid grounding in how we got here. There are endless fascinating rabbit holes to disappear down when you look back over the past 173 years of programming. This abstract can only give you a high-level review with a strong encouragement to follow any thread that engages you.

The Prehistory of Programming
Ada Lovelace, daughter of the poet Lord Byron, is generally recognized as the world’s first programmer, though she never wrote a single line of code as we understand it today. What she did in 1843 was very carefully describe a step by step process of how to use Charles Babbage’s theoretical Analytical Engine to generate Bernoulli’s numbers. Her idea was to take a device for calculating large numbers and use it to generate new concepts.

Take a moment to consider how monumental that was. Bernoulli’s numbers are essential for analytics, number theory, and differential topology — all fields of knowledge that most people in the world couldn’t even comprehend during the Victorian era. Babbage was never able to build his Analytical Engine, so she had to do all of this in her head. Nevertheless, her schematic for machine language became the default framework for programming when technology caught up to her one hundred years later.

ENIAC: The Digital Analytical Engine
After the Great War, before it was known as World War I, the U.S. military realized that their bullets and bombs had not been accurate enough. Inefficient ballistics had been a colossal waste of resources, and another war was imminent. Generals agreed they needed a faster way to crunch vast numbers and get them to artillery gunners in the field.

As World War II began, six women known as “computers” sat in a room at Army HQ with artillery charts and numeric calculating machines to compute ideal trajectories. They were the world’s first programming team. The need for faster computing spurred the U.S. Army to fund the creation of the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), developed from Babbage’s original design. Instead of using mechanical cogs like Babbage’s device, ENIAC performed calculations by holding up to ten digits in memory, making it the earliest case of digital transformation. Ironically, ENIAC wasn’t fully operational until the fall of 1945, just in time to see the end of World War II.

The biggest problem with ENIAC was that this team of human computers had to reset the machine’s switches after each program they prepared. That failing was addressed by John von Neumann’s proposal of an Electronic Discrete Variable Computer (EDVAC). Starting with the construction of EDVAC in 1949, programming languages began to proliferate.

From The Garden of Languages to the Apple
For the next three decades, electronic computers were monstrous machines. UNIVAC, the first commercially available computer, was the size of a room and ran on giant vacuum tubes. Programmers wrote commands using machine code and assembly language, which was then translated into punch cards, as in Babbage’s original design, or paper tape. The first higher level language was COBOL, created by Grace Hopper in 1953. COBOL and its associated Assembler is still used today in traditional industries like banking and insurance. This was soon followed up by IBM’s creation of FORTRAN, which included its own compiler. The programming training publisher O’Reilly has created a language timeline showing how fifty of the most popular languages that have grown from there.

The next big shockwave, still being felt today, was the introduction of personal computers in the late 1970s. The first wave of personal computers was characterized by a hobbyist/DIY aesthetic, like the Tandy TRS-80 and the Commodore 64 (remarkably still in operation today). These ran simple programs using the language BASIC. During this period, language wars really began to heat up as a rise in amateur programmers developed their own logic systems. Some of the top languages developed during this time included Pascal, Scheme, Perl, and ADA (named for Lovelace).

Perhaps the most influential development at this time was a variation on C called C With Classes, by Bjarne Stroustrup. This would grow into C++ and anchor a growing catalog of object-oriented (OO) languages. The 1980s brought the rapid growth of two hardware groups that dominated the personal computer industry and virtually locked down the operating system (OS) market for many years: IBM and Apple.

Programming for Mac vs. PC
Apple made computing visual with the introduction of the Macintosh in 1984, and IBM PC’s association with Microsoft Windows soon followed suit. The Mac introduced the mouse, the on-screen desktop, and icons for programs. The average user no longer associated computing with typing text into a command line on a black screen with a blinking cursor. This changed programming in two fundamental ways.

First, it led to the introduction of visual programming languages (VPLs) like Visual C and Visual J, where developers can manipulate coding elements spatially. Second, it opened up developers to considerations of the graphical user interface (GUI). In many ways, this was the beginning of the DevOps split between concern for the user experience vs. operational efficiency.

Although programming languages themselves were normally OS agnostic, the Mac vs. PC camps tended to support different types of software development. In the 1990s, the PC favored software for business, developed from languages like C++, Visual Basic, and R. Apple was better known as a home for graphics and communications software using new languages like Ruby, Python, and AppleScript. In the mid-1990s, the explosive popularity of the World Wide Web and gaming systems changed everything.

Gaming and The Web
The web moved HTML, Java, JavaScript, and PHP to the top of every developer’s list. Cold Fusion, Game Maker, and UnrealScript are a few of the languages built expressly for gaming. More recently, game developers often rely on rich ecosystems like JavaScript, C++, Cool (later renamed as C#), Ruby, and Python. These have been the workhorses for both web applications and game development. High-end graphics often call for supplemental support by specialized languages like OpenGL or DirectX.

Languages in Demand Now
Here’s an outline of the languages most in demand in 2016, according to the TIOBE index and Redmonk:

TIOBE (September 2016)
These TIOBE rankings are based on a concatenation of the total number of developers employed to use specific languages, instruction courses offered, and third-party consultants. This data is compared to results across all major search engines and hits on language pages within Amazon, Baidu, Wikipedia, and YouTube. The goal is to identify on a monthly basis where the greatest number of lines of code are being compiled.

  1. Java
  2. C
  3. C++
  4. C#
  5. Python
  6. JavaScript
  7. PHP
  8. Assembly language
  9. Visual Basic .NET
  10. Perl

Redmonk’s Top 10 (Mid-year 2016)
Redmonk’s methodology is to compare the popularity and performance of specific languages against each other on GitHub and Stack Overflow. The amount of discussion on Stack Overflow and number of working uploads to GitHub is an indication of where development and software defined processes are trending.

  1. JavaScript
  2. Java
  3. PHP
  4. Python
  5. C#
  6. C++5
  7. Ruby (tie)
  8. CSS
  9. C
  10. Objective-C

It’s easy to see why many developers say that Java and C run the world. A foundation in these two languages and related branches will prepare you for the widest range of coding work. Of all the languages on these two lists, the one the stands out immediately is Assembly. This is an indication that the IoT has arrived and the need is intensifying for engineers who can code for short processing devices.

The Next Wave
Looking to the future, programming for enterprise business or individual apps both offer substantial financial possibilities. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) estimates the median pay for programmers to be approximately $79,530 annually. They are projecting an 8% decline in jobs through 2024 due to growing competition from lower-priced coders all over the world. However, the BLS also shows that software developers have a median income of $100, 690 annually with a 17% growth spike, much faster than other industries.

The difference is that low-level programming will be increasingly outsourced and automated in the years ahead. On the other hand, there is already a shortage of people who know how to do the higher-level thinking of engineers and DevOps professionals.

In fact, there are many developers who are now at work trying to converge programming languages with natural spoken languages. That’s the goal of the Attempto Controlled English experiment at the University of Zurich. The hope is to open up the power of programming to as many people as possible before the IoT surrounds us with machines we don’t know how to control. We may all be programmers in the future, but DevOps skills will be critical to keep the business world running.

Learn More
Stay tuned for ‘Code Compiled: A Short History of Programming – Part II.’

The post Code Compiled: A Short History of Programming – Part I appeared first on Application Performance Monitoring Blog | AppDynamics.

More Stories By Jyoti Bansal

In high-production environments where release cycles are measured in hours or minutes — not days or weeks — there's little room for mistakes and no room for confusion. Everyone has to understand what's happening, in real time, and have the means to do whatever is necessary to keep applications up and running optimally.

DevOps is a high-stakes world, but done well, it delivers the agility and performance to significantly impact business competitiveness.

@BigDataExpo Stories
New competitors, disruptive technologies, and growing expectations are pushing every business to both adopt and deliver new digital services. This ‘Digital Transformation’ demands rapid delivery and continuous iteration of new competitive services via multiple channels, which in turn demands new service delivery techniques – including DevOps. In this power panel at @DevOpsSummit 20th Cloud Expo, moderated by DevOps Conference Co-Chair Andi Mann, panelists will examine how DevOps helps to meet th...
DevOps is being widely accepted (if not fully adopted) as essential in enterprise IT. But as Enterprise DevOps gains maturity, expands scope, and increases velocity, the need for data-driven decisions across teams becomes more acute. DevOps teams in any modern business must wrangle the ‘digital exhaust’ from the delivery toolchain, "pervasive" and "cognitive" computing, APIs and services, mobile devices and applications, the Internet of Things, and now even blockchain.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Juniper Networks (NYSE: JNPR), an industry leader in automated, scalable and secure networks, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Juniper Networks challenges the status quo with products, solutions and services that transform the economics of networking. The company co-innovates with customers and partners to deliver automated, scalable and secure network...
@GonzalezCarmen has been ranked the Number One Influencer and @ThingsExpo has been named the Number One Brand in the “M2M 2016: Top 100 Influencers and Brands” by Analytic. Onalytica analyzed tweets over the last 6 months mentioning the keywords M2M OR “Machine to Machine.” They then identified the top 100 most influential brands and individuals leading the discussion on Twitter.
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo 2016 in New York. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York, is co-located with 20th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry p...
The explosion of new web/cloud/IoT-based applications and the data they generate are transforming our world right before our eyes. In this rush to adopt these new technologies, organizations are often ignoring fundamental questions concerning who owns the data and failing to ask for permission to conduct invasive surveillance of their customers. Organizations that are not transparent about how their systems gather data telemetry without offering shared data ownership risk product rejection, regu...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Hitachi, the leading provider the Internet of Things and Digital Transformation, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Hitachi Data Systems, a wholly owned subsidiary of Hitachi, Ltd., offers an integrated portfolio of services and solutions that enable digital transformation through enhanced data management, governance, mobility and analytics. We help globa...
Blockchain is a shared, secure record of exchange that establishes trust, accountability and transparency across supply chain networks. Supported by the Linux Foundation's open source, open-standards based Hyperledger Project, Blockchain has the potential to improve regulatory compliance, reduce cost and time for product recall as well as advance trade. Are you curious about Blockchain and how it can provide you with new opportunities for innovation and growth? In her session at 20th Cloud Exp...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Progress, a global leader in application development, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Enterprises today are rapidly adopting the cloud, while continuing to retain business-critical/sensitive data inside the firewall. This is creating two separate data silos – one inside the firewall and the other outside the firewall. Cloud ISVs oft...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM Company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. SoftLayer, an IBM Company, provides cloud infrastructure as a service from a growing number of data centers and network points of presence around the world. SoftLayer’s customers range from Web startups to global enterprises.
Quickly find the root cause of complex database problems slowing down your applications. Up to 88% of all application performance issues are related to the database. DPA’s unique response time analysis shows you exactly what needs fixing - in four clicks or less. Optimize performance anywhere. Database Performance Analyzer monitors on-premises, on VMware®, and in the Cloud, including Amazon® AWS and Azure™ virtual machines.
NHK, Japan Broadcasting, will feature the upcoming @ThingsExpo Silicon Valley in a special 'Internet of Things' and smart technology documentary that will be filmed on the expo floor between November 3 to 5, 2015, in Santa Clara. NHK is the sole public TV network in Japan equivalent to the BBC in the UK and the largest in Asia with many award-winning science and technology programs. Japanese TV is producing a documentary about IoT and Smart technology and will be covering @ThingsExpo Silicon Val...
In his keynote at 19th Cloud Expo, Sheng Liang, co-founder and CEO of Rancher Labs, discussed the technological advances and new business opportunities created by the rapid adoption of containers. With the success of Amazon Web Services (AWS) and various open source technologies used to build private clouds, cloud computing has become an essential component of IT strategy. However, users continue to face challenges in implementing clouds, as older technologies evolve and newer ones like Docker c...
The age of Digital Disruption is evolving into the next era – Digital Cohesion, an age in which applications securely self-assemble and deliver predictive services that continuously adapt to user behavior. Information from devices, sensors and applications around us will drive services seamlessly across mobile and fixed devices/infrastructure. This evolution is happening now in software defined services and secure networking. Four key drivers – Performance, Economics, Interoperability and Trust ...
Most technology leaders, contemporary and from the hardware era, are reshaping their businesses to do software in the hope of capturing value in IoT. Although IoT is relatively new in the market, it has already gone through many promotional terms such as IoE, IoX, SDX, Edge/Fog, Mist Compute, etc. Ultimately, irrespective of the name, it is about deriving value from independent software assets participating in an ecosystem as one comprehensive solution.
DevOps is often described as a combination of technology and culture. Without both, DevOps isn't complete. However, applying the culture to outdated technology is a recipe for disaster; as response times grow and connections between teams are delayed by technology, the culture will die. A Nutanix Enterprise Cloud has many benefits that provide the needed base for a true DevOps paradigm.
SYS-CON Events announced today that CollabNet, a global leader in enterprise software development, release automation and DevOps solutions, will be a Bronze Sponsor of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, taking place from June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. CollabNet offers a broad range of solutions with the mission of helping modern organizations deliver quality software at speed. The company’s latest innovation, the DevOps Lifecycle Manager (DLM), supports Value S...
Bert Loomis was a visionary. This general session will highlight how Bert Loomis and people like him inspire us to build great things with small inventions. In their general session at 19th Cloud Expo, Harold Hannon, Architect at IBM Bluemix, and Michael O'Neill, Strategic Business Development at Nvidia, discussed the accelerating pace of AI development and how IBM Cloud and NVIDIA are partnering to bring AI capabilities to "every day," on-demand. They also reviewed two "free infrastructure" pr...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Hitachi, the leading provider the Internet of Things and Digital Transformation, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Hitachi Data Systems, a wholly owned subsidiary of Hitachi, Ltd., offers an integrated portfolio of services and solutions that enable digital transformation through enhanced data management, governance, mobility and analytics. We help globa...
SYS-CON Events announced today that T-Mobile will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. As America's Un-carrier, T-Mobile US, Inc., is redefining the way consumers and businesses buy wireless services through leading product and service innovation. The Company's advanced nationwide 4G LTE network delivers outstanding wireless experiences to 67.4 million customers who are unwilling to compromise on ...