@DXWorldExpo Authors: Elizabeth White, Liz McMillan, Yeshim Deniz, Pat Romanski, Jason Bloomberg

Related Topics: @DXWorldExpo, Java IoT, Linux Containers, @DevOpsSummit

@DXWorldExpo: Article

A Short History of Programming | @DevOpsSummit #Java #AI #ML #DevOps

It can be hard to grasp what’s happening in the world of programming today without a solid grounding in how we got here

Code Compiled: A Short History of Programming - Part I
By Omed Habib

There are more than 2,500 documented programming languages with customizations, dialects, branches, and forks that expand that number by an order of magnitude. In comparison, the Ethnologue: Languages of the World research officially recognizes 7,097 official language groups that humans use to communicate with each other all around the world.

It can be hard to grasp what’s happening in the world of programming today without a solid grounding in how we got here. There are endless fascinating rabbit holes to disappear down when you look back over the past 173 years of programming. This abstract can only give you a high-level review with a strong encouragement to follow any thread that engages you.

The Prehistory of Programming
Ada Lovelace, daughter of the poet Lord Byron, is generally recognized as the world’s first programmer, though she never wrote a single line of code as we understand it today. What she did in 1843 was very carefully describe a step by step process of how to use Charles Babbage’s theoretical Analytical Engine to generate Bernoulli’s numbers. Her idea was to take a device for calculating large numbers and use it to generate new concepts.

Take a moment to consider how monumental that was. Bernoulli’s numbers are essential for analytics, number theory, and differential topology — all fields of knowledge that most people in the world couldn’t even comprehend during the Victorian era. Babbage was never able to build his Analytical Engine, so she had to do all of this in her head. Nevertheless, her schematic for machine language became the default framework for programming when technology caught up to her one hundred years later.

ENIAC: The Digital Analytical Engine
After the Great War, before it was known as World War I, the U.S. military realized that their bullets and bombs had not been accurate enough. Inefficient ballistics had been a colossal waste of resources, and another war was imminent. Generals agreed they needed a faster way to crunch vast numbers and get them to artillery gunners in the field.

As World War II began, six women known as “computers” sat in a room at Army HQ with artillery charts and numeric calculating machines to compute ideal trajectories. They were the world’s first programming team. The need for faster computing spurred the U.S. Army to fund the creation of the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), developed from Babbage’s original design. Instead of using mechanical cogs like Babbage’s device, ENIAC performed calculations by holding up to ten digits in memory, making it the earliest case of digital transformation. Ironically, ENIAC wasn’t fully operational until the fall of 1945, just in time to see the end of World War II.

The biggest problem with ENIAC was that this team of human computers had to reset the machine’s switches after each program they prepared. That failing was addressed by John von Neumann’s proposal of an Electronic Discrete Variable Computer (EDVAC). Starting with the construction of EDVAC in 1949, programming languages began to proliferate.

From The Garden of Languages to the Apple
For the next three decades, electronic computers were monstrous machines. UNIVAC, the first commercially available computer, was the size of a room and ran on giant vacuum tubes. Programmers wrote commands using machine code and assembly language, which was then translated into punch cards, as in Babbage’s original design, or paper tape. The first higher level language was COBOL, created by Grace Hopper in 1953. COBOL and its associated Assembler is still used today in traditional industries like banking and insurance. This was soon followed up by IBM’s creation of FORTRAN, which included its own compiler. The programming training publisher O’Reilly has created a language timeline showing how fifty of the most popular languages that have grown from there.

The next big shockwave, still being felt today, was the introduction of personal computers in the late 1970s. The first wave of personal computers was characterized by a hobbyist/DIY aesthetic, like the Tandy TRS-80 and the Commodore 64 (remarkably still in operation today). These ran simple programs using the language BASIC. During this period, language wars really began to heat up as a rise in amateur programmers developed their own logic systems. Some of the top languages developed during this time included Pascal, Scheme, Perl, and ADA (named for Lovelace).

Perhaps the most influential development at this time was a variation on C called C With Classes, by Bjarne Stroustrup. This would grow into C++ and anchor a growing catalog of object-oriented (OO) languages. The 1980s brought the rapid growth of two hardware groups that dominated the personal computer industry and virtually locked down the operating system (OS) market for many years: IBM and Apple.

Programming for Mac vs. PC
Apple made computing visual with the introduction of the Macintosh in 1984, and IBM PC’s association with Microsoft Windows soon followed suit. The Mac introduced the mouse, the on-screen desktop, and icons for programs. The average user no longer associated computing with typing text into a command line on a black screen with a blinking cursor. This changed programming in two fundamental ways.

First, it led to the introduction of visual programming languages (VPLs) like Visual C and Visual J, where developers can manipulate coding elements spatially. Second, it opened up developers to considerations of the graphical user interface (GUI). In many ways, this was the beginning of the DevOps split between concern for the user experience vs. operational efficiency.

Although programming languages themselves were normally OS agnostic, the Mac vs. PC camps tended to support different types of software development. In the 1990s, the PC favored software for business, developed from languages like C++, Visual Basic, and R. Apple was better known as a home for graphics and communications software using new languages like Ruby, Python, and AppleScript. In the mid-1990s, the explosive popularity of the World Wide Web and gaming systems changed everything.

Gaming and The Web
The web moved HTML, Java, JavaScript, and PHP to the top of every developer’s list. Cold Fusion, Game Maker, and UnrealScript are a few of the languages built expressly for gaming. More recently, game developers often rely on rich ecosystems like JavaScript, C++, Cool (later renamed as C#), Ruby, and Python. These have been the workhorses for both web applications and game development. High-end graphics often call for supplemental support by specialized languages like OpenGL or DirectX.

Languages in Demand Now
Here’s an outline of the languages most in demand in 2016, according to the TIOBE index and Redmonk:

TIOBE (September 2016)
These TIOBE rankings are based on a concatenation of the total number of developers employed to use specific languages, instruction courses offered, and third-party consultants. This data is compared to results across all major search engines and hits on language pages within Amazon, Baidu, Wikipedia, and YouTube. The goal is to identify on a monthly basis where the greatest number of lines of code are being compiled.

  1. Java
  2. C
  3. C++
  4. C#
  5. Python
  6. JavaScript
  7. PHP
  8. Assembly language
  9. Visual Basic .NET
  10. Perl

Redmonk’s Top 10 (Mid-year 2016)
Redmonk’s methodology is to compare the popularity and performance of specific languages against each other on GitHub and Stack Overflow. The amount of discussion on Stack Overflow and number of working uploads to GitHub is an indication of where development and software defined processes are trending.

  1. JavaScript
  2. Java
  3. PHP
  4. Python
  5. C#
  6. C++5
  7. Ruby (tie)
  8. CSS
  9. C
  10. Objective-C

It’s easy to see why many developers say that Java and C run the world. A foundation in these two languages and related branches will prepare you for the widest range of coding work. Of all the languages on these two lists, the one the stands out immediately is Assembly. This is an indication that the IoT has arrived and the need is intensifying for engineers who can code for short processing devices.

The Next Wave
Looking to the future, programming for enterprise business or individual apps both offer substantial financial possibilities. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) estimates the median pay for programmers to be approximately $79,530 annually. They are projecting an 8% decline in jobs through 2024 due to growing competition from lower-priced coders all over the world. However, the BLS also shows that software developers have a median income of $100, 690 annually with a 17% growth spike, much faster than other industries.

The difference is that low-level programming will be increasingly outsourced and automated in the years ahead. On the other hand, there is already a shortage of people who know how to do the higher-level thinking of engineers and DevOps professionals.

In fact, there are many developers who are now at work trying to converge programming languages with natural spoken languages. That’s the goal of the Attempto Controlled English experiment at the University of Zurich. The hope is to open up the power of programming to as many people as possible before the IoT surrounds us with machines we don’t know how to control. We may all be programmers in the future, but DevOps skills will be critical to keep the business world running.

Learn More
Stay tuned for ‘Code Compiled: A Short History of Programming – Part II.’

The post Code Compiled: A Short History of Programming – Part I appeared first on Application Performance Monitoring Blog | AppDynamics.

More Stories By AppDynamics Blog

In high-production environments where release cycles are measured in hours or minutes — not days or weeks — there's little room for mistakes and no room for confusion. Everyone has to understand what's happening, in real time, and have the means to do whatever is necessary to keep applications up and running optimally.

DevOps is a high-stakes world, but done well, it delivers the agility and performance to significantly impact business competitiveness.

@BigDataExpo Stories
"There's plenty of bandwidth out there but it's never in the right place. So what Cedexis does is uses data to work out the best pathways to get data from the origin to the person who wants to get it," explained Simon Jones, Evangelist and Head of Marketing at Cedexis, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Digital Transformation and Disruption, Amazon Style - What You Can Learn. Chris Kocher is a co-founder of Grey Heron, a management and strategic marketing consulting firm. He has 25+ years in both strategic and hands-on operating experience helping executives and investors build revenues and shareholder value. He has consulted with over 130 companies on innovating with new business models, product strategies and monetization. Chris has held management positions at HP and Symantec in addition to ...
Enterprises have taken advantage of IoT to achieve important revenue and cost advantages. What is less apparent is how incumbent enterprises operating at scale have, following success with IoT, built analytic, operations management and software development capabilities - ranging from autonomous vehicles to manageable robotics installations. They have embraced these capabilities as if they were Silicon Valley startups.
René Bostic is the Technical VP of the IBM Cloud Unit in North America. Enjoying her career with IBM during the modern millennial technological era, she is an expert in cloud computing, DevOps and emerging cloud technologies such as Blockchain. Her strengths and core competencies include a proven record of accomplishments in consensus building at all levels to assess, plan, and implement enterprise and cloud computing solutions. René is a member of the Society of Women Engineers (SWE) and a m...
When talking IoT we often focus on the devices, the sensors, the hardware itself. The new smart appliances, the new smart or self-driving cars (which are amalgamations of many ‘things'). When we are looking at the world of IoT, we should take a step back, look at the big picture. What value are these devices providing. IoT is not about the devices, its about the data consumed and generated. The devices are tools, mechanisms, conduits. This paper discusses the considerations when dealing with the...
DXWordEXPO New York 2018, colocated with CloudEXPO New York 2018 will be held November 11-13, 2018, in New York City. Digital Transformation (DX) is a major focus with the introduction of DXWorldEXPO within the program. Successful transformation requires a laser focus on being data-driven and on using all the tools available that enable transformation if they plan to survive over the long term.
To Really Work for Enterprises, MultiCloud Adoption Requires Far Better and Inclusive Cloud Monitoring and Cost Management … But How? Overwhelmingly, even as enterprises have adopted cloud computing and are expanding to multi-cloud computing, IT leaders remain concerned about how to monitor, manage and control costs across hybrid and multi-cloud deployments. It’s clear that traditional IT monitoring and management approaches, designed after all for on-premises data centers, are falling short in ...
With privacy often voiced as the primary concern when using cloud based services, SyncriBox was designed to ensure that the software remains completely under the customer's control. Having both the source and destination files remain under the user?s control, there are no privacy or security issues. Since files are synchronized using Syncrify Server, no third party ever sees these files.
"We are an integrator of carrier ethernet and bandwidth to get people to connect to the cloud, to the SaaS providers, and the IaaS providers all on ethernet," explained Paul Mako, CEO & CTO of Massive Networks, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
I believe that this may finally be the year that the CIO role ‘crosses the Rubicon,' leaving behind its traditional, IT-focused orientation. But I don't believe that either of the previous predictions of this outcome — fading into oblivion or rising to a business executive level — is correct. Instead, I think this is the year that we will see the role of the CIO transformed into something altogether different.
Cloud-enabled transformation has evolved from cost saving measure to business innovation strategy -- one that combines the cloud with cognitive capabilities to drive market disruption. Learn how you can achieve the insight and agility you need to gain a competitive advantage. Industry-acclaimed CTO and cloud expert, Shankar Kalyana presents. Only the most exceptional IBMers are appointed with the rare distinction of IBM Fellow, the highest technical honor in the company. Shankar has also receive...
In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Carl J. Levine, Senior Technical Evangelist for NS1, will objectively discuss how DNS is used to solve Digital Transformation challenges in large SaaS applications, CDNs, AdTech platforms, and other demanding use cases. Carl J. Levine is the Senior Technical Evangelist for NS1. A veteran of the Internet Infrastructure space, he has over a decade of experience with startups, networking protocols and Internet infrastructure, combined with the unique ability to it...
Andi Mann, Chief Technology Advocate at Splunk, is an accomplished digital business executive with extensive global expertise as a strategist, technologist, innovator, marketer, and communicator. For over 30 years across five continents, he has built success with Fortune 500 corporations, vendors, governments, and as a leading research analyst and consultant.
Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life settlement products to hedge funds and investment banks. After, he co-founded a revenue cycle management company where he learned about Bitcoin and eventually Ethereal. Andrew's role at ConsenSys Enterprise is a mul...
Internet-of-Things discussions can end up either going down the consumer gadget rabbit hole or focused on the sort of data logging that industrial manufacturers have been doing forever. However, in fact, companies today are already using IoT data both to optimize their operational technology and to improve the experience of customer interactions in novel ways. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Gordon Haff, Red Hat Technology Evangelist, shared examples from a wide range of industries – including en...
"Space Monkey by Vivent Smart Home is a product that is a distributed cloud-based edge storage network. Vivent Smart Home, our parent company, is a smart home provider that places a lot of hard drives across homes in North America," explained JT Olds, Director of Engineering, and Brandon Crowfeather, Product Manager, at Vivint Smart Home, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Rodrigo Coutinho is part of OutSystems' founders' team and currently the Head of Product Design. He provides a cross-functional role where he supports Product Management in defining the positioning and direction of the Agile Platform, while at the same time promoting model-based development and new techniques to deliver applications in the cloud.
DevOpsSummit New York 2018, colocated with CloudEXPO | DXWorldEXPO New York 2018 will be held November 11-13, 2018, in New York City. Digital Transformation (DX) is a major focus with the introduction of DXWorldEXPO within the program. Successful transformation requires a laser focus on being data-driven and on using all the tools available that enable transformation if they plan to survive over the long term. A total of 88% of Fortune 500 companies from a generation ago are now out of bus...
delaPlex is a global technology and software development solutions and consulting provider, deeply committed to helping companies drive growth, revenue and marketplace value. Since 2008, delaPlex's objective has been to be a trusted advisor to its clients. By redefining the outsourcing industry's business model, the innovative delaPlex Agile Business Framework brings an unmatched alliance of industry experts, across industries and functional skillsets, to clients anywhere around the world.
Business professionals no longer wonder if they'll migrate to the cloud; it's now a matter of when. The cloud environment has proved to be a major force in transitioning to an agile business model that enables quick decisions and fast implementation that solidify customer relationships. And when the cloud is combined with the power of cognitive computing, it drives innovation and transformation that achieves astounding competitive advantage.