Click here to close now.


@BigDataExpo Authors: Yeshim Deniz, Elizabeth White, Marc Crespi, Carmen Gonzalez, Liz McMillan

Related Topics: Containers Expo Blog, Java IoT, Linux Containers, Open Source Cloud, IoT User Interface, Agile Computing, @BigDataExpo

Containers Expo Blog: Article

Easily Boost Your Web Application Using nginx

The performance improvement is quite significant for serving static content

More and more Web sites and applications are being moved from Apache to nginx. While Apache is still the number one HTTP server with more than 60% on active Web sites, nginx has now taken over 2nd place in the ranking and relegated Microsoft's IIS to 3rd place. Among the top 10.000 Web sites nginx is already the leader in the field, with a market share of 40%.

And the reasons are obvious: nginx is a high-speed, lightweight HTTP server engine. The performance improvement is quite significant for serving static content. Especially at high load, nginx is much faster than Apache and consumes much less resources on the server. Thus, concurrent requests can be handled more efficiently. As a consequence, the same tasks can be fulfilled by less hardware. And every byte of memory, CPU or even server to be economized reduces your infrastructure costs.

I ran some load tests: 10.000 requests showed quite remarkable differences, even more distinct with more concurrent users. Note that with Apache the total execution time increases with the number of users, while nginx can easily handle that. For 2,000 users, nginx could process the requests almost four times faster.

While nginx uses an event-based request handling in a small number of processes, Apache is spawning new processes or threads for each request, depending on the processing mode. Apache's default multi-process (prefork) mode creates child processes for each request. Such a process is a complete instance of Apache including all linked modules. That means that even a request for static content, like an image, causes a new process to be started and the PHP module to be loaded.

Apache can also be operated in a multi-threaded (worker) mode, which creates multiple threads in fewer processes, one per request. Thus, it consumes much less memory, but the operation is no longer thread-save. Therefore modules like mod_php can't be used.

I went through the exercise of figuring out the best way to leverage nginx on an application that runs on Apache. In this blog we will cover the actual installation steps, different deployment and migration scenarios, as well as how to measure the actual performance gain.

Installing nginx
All you have to do to start boosting your application performance is to install nginx on your machine and follow some configuration rules. In this article I will be referencing an example site running Ubuntu.

sudo apt-get install nginx

No doubt, Apache provides much more functionality by supplying a broad range of mountable modules and many more options to be configured. A common way to adjust the behavior of a website is a combination of the virtual host setup and using the .htaccess file. First of all: this file doesn't exist in nginx, which is another performance bonus. Apache checks every single directory in the path of the requested file for an .htaccess file and evaluates the content if it exists. And, if not configured properly, keeping a config file together with your data could result in a severe security issue. Nginx keeps the configuration in a central place and loads the settings into memory at startup.

Even if you are not sure whether or not you really should replace Apache by nginx, you could always use both together? We will cover this later.

Migrating Configuration
There are quite some similarities, but it's important to understand the differences between the configurations. Just like Apache, nginx keeps the files in /etc/nginx/sites-available. Use a symbolic link for active configurations in /etc/nginx/sites-enabled.

First of all, create a server block for each virtual host.

server {
listen 80;

The basic setup for running a site is similar to Apache, with a slightly different syntax:


# Apache



# nginx


<VirtualHost *:80>


DocumentRoot /srv/www/mysite
DirectoryIndex index.php index.html


server {
listen: 80;


root /srv/www/mysite;
index index.php index.html;


To add specific behavior for certain requests define a location inside your server block. You can use regular expressions to select the effected requests:

server {

location / {
try_files $uri $uri/ @notfound;

location /doc/ {

alias /usr/share/doc/;

autoindex on;


deny all;


location /images/ {
root /media/images


location @notfound {

rewrite (.*) /index.php?paramstring=$1;


location ~ /\.ht {

deny all;


This sample configuration shows some of the setup options for server/locations. Make sure to create a config to deny .ht* files, as nginx is not doing that from scratch. Direct access to these files is automatically rejected by Apache. Note that familiar options from Apache can be found here in nginx: allow/deny, alias, rewrite, etc.

Please refer to the online documentation on for further information.

Especially when you have multiple websites running on your server, and lots of requests causing high load, it is a good decision to move to nginx. But multiple websites, configured differently, could result in a quite high effort on migration. There are some converters available doing that job for you, but mainly they convert a .htaccess file to an nginx config. But Apache also uses configurations for virtual hosts - do not forget about these! Even if converted by a tool, I recommend checking your configurations manually before using them in a production environment!

Tip: install nginx as the primary HTTP server and leave your Apache running on a different port. Migrate your virtual servers one-by-one by creating nginx server configurations, and forward requests for not-yet-migrated websites to Apache. I'll show you how:

For my insight into nginx, and a look at Apache, click here for the full article

More Stories By Harald Zeitlhofer

Harald Zeitlhofer has 15+ years of experience as an architect and developer of enterprise ERP solutions and web applications with a main focus on efficient and performant business processes, usability and application design. He has successfully connected main players in the B2B field by implementing and managing cross-party EDI strategies. In his current role as a Technology Strategist in Compuware's Centre of Excellence team he influences the Compuware APM product strategy by working closely with customers and driving their performance management and improvement at the front line. Follow him @HZeitlhofer

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.

@BigDataExpo Stories
There are so many tools and techniques for data analytics that even for a data scientist the choices, possible systems, and even the types of data can be daunting. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Harrold, Global CTO for Big Data Solutions for EMC Corporation, will show how to perform a simple, but meaningful analysis of social sentiment data using freely available tools that take only minutes to download and install. Participants will get the download information, scripts, and complete en...
Too often with compelling new technologies market participants become overly enamored with that attractiveness of the technology and neglect underlying business drivers. This tendency, what some call the “newest shiny object syndrome,” is understandable given that virtually all of us are heavily engaged in technology. But it is also mistaken. Without concrete business cases driving its deployment, IoT, like many other technologies before it, will fade into obscurity.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Super Micro Computer, Inc., a global leader in high-performance, high-efficiency server, storage technology and green computing, will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Supermicro (NASDAQ: SMCI), the leading innovator in high-performance, high-efficiency server technology is a premier provider of advanced server Building Block Solutions® for Data ...
SYS-CON Events announced today the Containers & Microservices Bootcamp, being held November 3-4, 2015, in conjunction with 17th Cloud Expo, @ThingsExpo, and @DevOpsSummit at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. This is your chance to get started with the latest technology in the industry. Combined with real-world scenarios and use cases, the Containers and Microservices Bootcamp, led by Janakiram MSV, a Microsoft Regional Director, will include presentations as well as hands-on...
Achim Weiss is Chief Executive Officer and co-founder of ProfitBricks. In 1995, he broke off his studies to co-found the web hosting company "Schlund+Partner." The company "Schlund+Partner" later became the 1&1 web hosting product line. From 1995 to 2008, he was the technical director for several important projects: the largest web hosting platform in the world, the second largest DSL platform, a video on-demand delivery network, the largest eMail backend in Europe, and a universal billing syste...
Cloud computing delivers on-demand resources that provide businesses with flexibility and cost-savings. The challenge in moving workloads to the cloud has been the cost and complexity of ensuring the initial and ongoing security and regulatory (PCI, HIPAA, FFIEC) compliance across private and public clouds. Manual security compliance is slow, prone to human error, and represents over 50% of the cost of managing cloud applications. Determining how to automate cloud security compliance is critical...
Electric power utilities face relentless pressure on their financial performance, and reducing distribution grid losses is one of the last untapped opportunities to meet their business goals. Combining IoT-enabled sensors and cloud-based data analytics, utilities now are able to find, quantify and reduce losses faster – and with a smaller IT footprint. Solutions exist using Internet-enabled sensors deployed temporarily at strategic locations within the distribution grid to measure actual line lo...
The Internet of Everything is re-shaping technology trends–moving away from “request/response” architecture to an “always-on” Streaming Web where data is in constant motion and secure, reliable communication is an absolute necessity. As more and more THINGS go online, the challenges that developers will need to address will only increase exponentially. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Todd Greene, Founder & CEO of PubNub, will explore the current state of IoT connectivity and review key trends an...
There will be 20 billion IoT devices connected to the Internet soon. What if we could control these devices with our voice, mind, or gestures? What if we could teach these devices how to talk to each other? What if these devices could learn how to interact with us (and each other) to make our lives better? What if Jarvis was real? How can I gain these super powers? In his session at 17th Cloud Expo, Chris Matthieu, co-founder and CTO of Octoblu, will show you!
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo in Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 17th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading in...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Sandy Carter, IBM General Manager Cloud Ecosystem and Developers, and a Social Business Evangelist, will keynote at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is growing rapidly by extending current technologies, products and networks. By 2020, Cisco estimates there will be 50 billion connected devices. Gartner has forecast revenues of over $300 billion, just to IoT suppliers. Now is the time to figure out how you’ll make money – not just create innovative products. With hundreds of new products and companies jumping into the IoT fray every month, there’s no shortage of innovation. Despite this, McKinsey/VisionMobile data...
The IoT market is on track to hit $7.1 trillion in 2020. The reality is that only a handful of companies are ready for this massive demand. There are a lot of barriers, paint points, traps, and hidden roadblocks. How can we deal with these issues and challenges? The paradigm has changed. Old-style ad-hoc trial-and-error ways will certainly lead you to the dead end. What is mandatory is an overarching and adaptive approach to effectively handle the rapid changes and exponential growth.
Today air travel is a minefield of delays, hassles and customer disappointment. Airlines struggle to revitalize the experience. GE and M2Mi will demonstrate practical examples of how IoT solutions are helping airlines bring back personalization, reduce trip time and improve reliability. In their session at @ThingsExpo, Shyam Varan Nath, Principal Architect with GE, and Dr. Sarah Cooper, M2Mi's VP Business Development and Engineering, will explore the IoT cloud-based platform technologies driv...
The IoT is upon us, but today’s databases, built on 30-year-old math, require multiple platforms to create a single solution. Data demands of the IoT require Big Data systems that can handle ingest, transactions and analytics concurrently adapting to varied situations as they occur, with speed at scale. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chad Jones, chief strategy officer at Deep Information Sciences, will look differently at IoT data so enterprises can fully leverage their IoT potential. He’ll sha...
Redis is not only the fastest database, but it has become the most popular among the new wave of applications running in containers. Redis speeds up just about every data interaction between your users or operational systems. In his session at 17th Cloud Expo, Dave Nielsen, Developer Relations at Redis Labs, will share the functions and data structures used to solve everyday use cases that are driving Redis' popularity
The enterprise is being consumerized, and the consumer is being enterprised. Moore's Law does not matter anymore, the future belongs to business virtualization powered by invisible service architecture, powered by hyperscale and hyperconvergence, and facilitated by vertical streaming and horizontal scaling and consolidation. Both buyers and sellers want instant results, and from paperwork to paperless to mindless is the ultimate goal for any seamless transaction. The sweetest sweet spot in innov...
SYS-CON Events announced today that DataClear Inc. will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. The DataClear ‘BlackBox’ is the only solution that moves your PC, browsing and data out of the United States and away from prying (and spying) eyes. Its solution automatically builds you a clean, on-demand, virus free, new virtual cloud based PC outside of the United States, and wipes it clean...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Machkey International Company will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Machkey provides advanced connectivity solutions for just about everyone. Businesses or individuals, Machkey is dedicated to provide high-quality and cost-effective products to meet all your needs.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Dyn, the worldwide leader in Internet Performance, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Dyn is a cloud-based Internet Performance company. Dyn helps companies monitor, control, and optimize online infrastructure for an exceptional end-user experience. Through a world-class network and unrivaled, objective intelligence into Internet condit...

Tweets by @BigDataExpo

@BigDataExpo Blogs
Disaster recovery (DR) has traditionally been a major challenge for IT departments. Even with the advent of server virtualization and other technologies that have simplified DR implementation and some aspects of on-going management, it is still a complex and (often extremely) costly undertaking. For those applications that do not require high availability, but are still mission- and business-critical, the decision as to which [applications] to spend money on for true disaster recovery can be a struggle.
SCOPE is an acronym for Structured Computations Optimized for Parallel Execution, a declarative language for working with large-scale data. It is still under development at Microsoft. If you know SQL then working with SCOPE will be quite easy as SCOPE builds on SQL. The execution environment is different from that RDBMS oriented data. Data is still modeled as rows. Every row has typed columns and eveyr rowset has a well-defined schema. There is a SCOPe compiler that comes up with optimized execution plan and a runtime execution plan.
If you’re running Big Data applications, you’re going to want to look at some kind of distributed processing system. Hadoop is one of the best-known clustering systems, but how are you going to process all your data in a reasonable time frame? MapReduce has become a standard, perhaps the standard, for distributed file systems. While it’s a great system already, it’s really geared toward batch use, with jobs needing to queue for later output. This can severely hamper your flexibility. What if you want to explore some of your data? If it’s going to take all night, forget about it.
Too many multinational corporations delete little, if any, data even though at its creation, more than 70 percent of this data is useless for business, regulatory or legal reasons.[1] The problem is hoarding, and what businesses need is their own “Hoarders” reality show about people whose lives are driven by their stuff[2] (corporations are legally people, after all). The goal of such an intervention (and this article)? Turning hoarders into collectors.
Today’s modern day industrial revolution is being shaped by ubiquitous connectivity, machine to machine (M2M) communications, the Internet of Things (IoT), open APIs leading to a surge in new applications and services, partnerships and eventual marketplaces. IoT has the potential to transform industry and society much like advances in steam technology, transportation, mass production and communications ushered in the industrial revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Today’s connected world is moving from devices towards things, what this means is that by using increasingly low cost sensors embedded in devices we can create many new use cases. These span across use cases in cities, vehicles, home, offices, factories, retail environments, worksites, health, logistics, and health. These use cases rely on ubiquitous connectivity and generate massive amounts of data at scale. These technologies enable new business opportunities, ways to optimize and automate, along with new ways to engage with users.
“Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management.” While this definition is broadly accepted and has, in fact, been my adopted standard for years, it only describes technical aspects of cloud computing. The amalgamation of technologies used to deliver cloud services is not even half the story. Above all else, the successful employment requires a tight linkage to the econ...
DevOps Summit at Cloud Expo 2014 Silicon Valley was a terrific event for us. The Qubell booth was crowded on all three days. We ran demos every 30 minutes with folks lining up to get a seat and usually standing around. It was great to meet and talk to over 500 people! My keynote was well received and so was Stan's joint presentation with RingCentral on Devops for BigData. I also participated in two Power Panels – ‘Women in Technology’ and ‘Why DevOps Is Even More Important than You Think,’ both featuring brilliant colleagues and moderators and it was a blast to be a part of.
Today air travel is a minefield of delays, hassles and customer disappointment. Airlines struggle to revitalize the experience. GE and M2Mi will demonstrate practical examples of how IoT solutions are helping airlines bring back personalization, reduce trip time and improve reliability. In their session at @ThingsExpo, Shyam Varan Nath, Principal Architect with GE, and Dr. Sarah Cooper, M2Mi's VP Business Development and Engineering, will explore the IoT cloud-based platform technologies driving this change including privacy controls, data transparency and integration of real time context w...
Developing software for the Internet of Things (IoT) comes with its own set of challenges. Security, privacy, and unified standards are a few key issues. In addition, each IoT product is comprised of at least three separate application components: the software embedded in the device, the backend big-data service, and the mobile application for the end user's controls. Each component is developed by a different team, using different technologies and practices, and deployed to a different stack/target - this makes the integration of these separate pipelines and the coordination of software upd...
All we need to do is have our teams self-organize, and behold! Emergent design and/or architecture springs up out of the nothingness! If only it were that easy, right? I follow in the footsteps of so many people who have long wondered at the meanings of such simple words, as though they were dogma from on high. Emerge? Self-organizing? Profound, to be sure. But what do we really make of this sentence?
It’s not hard to find technology trade press commentary on the subject of Big Data. Variously defined (in non-technical terms) as the cluttered old shoebox of all data – and again (in more technical terms) as that amount of data that does not comfortably fit into a standard relational database for storage, processing and analytics within the normal constraints of processing, memory and data transport technologies – we can say that Big Data is an oft mentioned and sometimes misunderstood subject.
Recently announced Azure Data Lake addresses the big data 3V challenges; volume, velocity and variety. It is one more storage feature in addition to blobs and SQL Azure database. Azure Data Lake (should have been Azure Data Ocean IMHO) is really omnipotent. Just look at the key capabilities of Azure Data Lake:
I was recently watching one of my favorite science fiction TV shows (I’ll confess, ‘Dr. Who’). In classic dystopian fashion, there was a scene in which a young boy is running for his life across some barren ground in a war-ravaged world. One of his compatriots calls out to him to freeze, not to move another inch. The compatriot warns the young boy that he’s in a field of hand mines (no, that is not a typo, he did say hand mines). Slowly, dull gray hands with eyes in the palm start emerging from the ground around the boy and the compatriot. Suddenly, one of the hands grabs the compatriot and pu...
Organizations already struggle with the simple collection of data resulting from the proliferation of IoT, lacking the right infrastructure to manage it. They can't only rely on the cloud to collect and utilize this data because many applications still require dedicated infrastructure for security, redundancy, performance, etc. In his session at 17th Cloud Expo, Emil Sayegh, CEO of Codero Hosting, will discuss how in order to resolve the inherent issues, companies need to combine dedicated and cloud solutions through hybrid hosting – a sustainable solution for the data required to manage I...

About @BigDataExpo
Big Data focuses on how to use your own enterprise data – processed in the Cloud – most effectively to drive value for your business.