Welcome!

@BigDataExpo Authors: Liz McMillan, Sujoy Sen, William Schmarzo, Akhil Sahai, Elizabeth White

Related Topics: Containers Expo Blog, Java IoT, Linux Containers, Open Source Cloud, IoT User Interface, Agile Computing, @BigDataExpo

Containers Expo Blog: Article

Easily Boost Your Web Application Using nginx

The performance improvement is quite significant for serving static content

More and more Web sites and applications are being moved from Apache to nginx. While Apache is still the number one HTTP server with more than 60% on active Web sites, nginx has now taken over 2nd place in the ranking and relegated Microsoft's IIS to 3rd place. Among the top 10.000 Web sites nginx is already the leader in the field, with a market share of 40%.

And the reasons are obvious: nginx is a high-speed, lightweight HTTP server engine. The performance improvement is quite significant for serving static content. Especially at high load, nginx is much faster than Apache and consumes much less resources on the server. Thus, concurrent requests can be handled more efficiently. As a consequence, the same tasks can be fulfilled by less hardware. And every byte of memory, CPU or even server to be economized reduces your infrastructure costs.

I ran some load tests: 10.000 requests showed quite remarkable differences, even more distinct with more concurrent users. Note that with Apache the total execution time increases with the number of users, while nginx can easily handle that. For 2,000 users, nginx could process the requests almost four times faster.

While nginx uses an event-based request handling in a small number of processes, Apache is spawning new processes or threads for each request, depending on the processing mode. Apache's default multi-process (prefork) mode creates child processes for each request. Such a process is a complete instance of Apache including all linked modules. That means that even a request for static content, like an image, causes a new process to be started and the PHP module to be loaded.

Apache can also be operated in a multi-threaded (worker) mode, which creates multiple threads in fewer processes, one per request. Thus, it consumes much less memory, but the operation is no longer thread-save. Therefore modules like mod_php can't be used.

I went through the exercise of figuring out the best way to leverage nginx on an application that runs on Apache. In this blog we will cover the actual installation steps, different deployment and migration scenarios, as well as how to measure the actual performance gain.

Installing nginx
All you have to do to start boosting your application performance is to install nginx on your machine and follow some configuration rules. In this article I will be referencing an example site running Ubuntu.

sudo apt-get install nginx

No doubt, Apache provides much more functionality by supplying a broad range of mountable modules and many more options to be configured. A common way to adjust the behavior of a website is a combination of the virtual host setup and using the .htaccess file. First of all: this file doesn't exist in nginx, which is another performance bonus. Apache checks every single directory in the path of the requested file for an .htaccess file and evaluates the content if it exists. And, if not configured properly, keeping a config file together with your data could result in a severe security issue. Nginx keeps the configuration in a central place and loads the settings into memory at startup.

Even if you are not sure whether or not you really should replace Apache by nginx, you could always use both together? We will cover this later.

Migrating Configuration
There are quite some similarities, but it's important to understand the differences between the configurations. Just like Apache, nginx keeps the files in /etc/nginx/sites-available. Use a symbolic link for active configurations in /etc/nginx/sites-enabled.

First of all, create a server block for each virtual host.

server {
listen 80;
...
}

The basic setup for running a site is similar to Apache, with a slightly different syntax:

#

# Apache

#

#

# nginx

#

<VirtualHost *:80>

ServerName mysite.com
ServerAlias www.mysite.com

DocumentRoot /srv/www/mysite
DirectoryIndex index.php index.html

</VirtalHost>

server {
listen: 80;

server_name mysite.com www.mysite.com;

root /srv/www/mysite;
index index.php index.html;

}



To add specific behavior for certain requests define a location inside your server block. You can use regular expressions to select the effected requests:

server {
...

location / {
try_files $uri $uri/ @notfound;
}

location /doc/ {

alias /usr/share/doc/;

autoindex on;

allow 127.0.0.1;

deny all;

}

location /images/ {
root /media/images

}

location @notfound {

rewrite (.*) /index.php?paramstring=$1;

}

location ~ /\.ht {

deny all;

}
}

This sample configuration shows some of the setup options for server/locations. Make sure to create a config to deny .ht* files, as nginx is not doing that from scratch. Direct access to these files is automatically rejected by Apache. Note that familiar options from Apache can be found here in nginx: allow/deny, alias, rewrite, etc.

Please refer to the online documentation on nginx.org for further information.

Especially when you have multiple websites running on your server, and lots of requests causing high load, it is a good decision to move to nginx. But multiple websites, configured differently, could result in a quite high effort on migration. There are some converters available doing that job for you, but mainly they convert a .htaccess file to an nginx config. But Apache also uses configurations for virtual hosts - do not forget about these! Even if converted by a tool, I recommend checking your configurations manually before using them in a production environment!

Tip: install nginx as the primary HTTP server and leave your Apache running on a different port. Migrate your virtual servers one-by-one by creating nginx server configurations, and forward requests for not-yet-migrated websites to Apache. I'll show you how:

For my insight into nginx, and a look at Apache, click here for the full article

More Stories By Harald Zeitlhofer

Harald Zeitlhofer has 15+ years of experience as an architect and developer of enterprise ERP solutions and web applications with a main focus on efficient and performant business processes, usability and application design. As a Technology Strategist in Dynatrace's Centre of Excellence team he influences the Dynatrace product strategy by working closely with customers and driving their performance management and improvement at the front line. He is a frequent speaker at conferences and meetup groups around the world. Follow him @HZeitlhofer

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@BigDataExpo Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today that Venafi, the Immune System for the Internet™ and the leading provider of Next Generation Trust Protection, will exhibit at @DevOpsSummit at 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Venafi is the Immune System for the Internet™ that protects the foundation of all cybersecurity – cryptographic keys and digital certificates – so they can’t be misused by bad guys in attacks...
The cloud market growth today is largely in public clouds. While there is a lot of spend in IT departments in virtualization, these aren’t yet translating into a true “cloud” experience within the enterprise. What is stopping the growth of the “private cloud” market? In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Nara Rajagopalan, CEO of Accelerite, explored the challenges in deploying, managing, and getting adoption for a private cloud within an enterprise. What are the key differences between wh...
Choosing the right cloud for your workloads is a balancing act that can cost your organization time, money and aggravation - unless you get it right the first time. Economics, speed, performance, accessibility, administrative needs and security all play a vital role in dictating your approach to the cloud. Without knowing the right questions to ask, you could wind up paying for capacity you'll never need or underestimating the resources required to run your applications.
It’s 2016: buildings are smart, connected and the IoT is fundamentally altering how control and operating systems work and speak to each other. Platforms across the enterprise are networked via inexpensive sensors to collect massive amounts of data for analytics, information management, and insights that can be used to continuously improve operations. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Brian Chemel, Co-Founder and CTO of Digital Lumens, will explore: The benefits sensor-networked systems bring to ...
Extreme Computing is the ability to leverage highly performant infrastructure and software to accelerate Big Data, machine learning, HPC, and Enterprise applications. High IOPS Storage, low-latency networks, in-memory databases, GPUs and other parallel accelerators are being used to achieve faster results and help businesses make better decisions. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Michael O'Neill, Strategic Business Development at NVIDIA, focused on some of the unique ways extreme computing is...
Cloud analytics is dramatically altering business intelligence. Some businesses will capitalize on these promising new technologies and gain key insights that’ll help them gain competitive advantage. And others won’t. Whether you’re a business leader, an IT manager, or an analyst, we want to help you and the people you need to influence with a free copy of “Cloud Analytics for Dummies,” the essential guide to this explosive new space for business intelligence.
Manufacturers are embracing the Industrial Internet the same way consumers are leveraging Fitbits – to improve overall health and wellness. Both can provide consistent measurement, visibility, and suggest performance improvements customized to help reach goals. Fitbit users can view real-time data and make adjustments to increase their activity. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mark Bernardo Professional Services Leader, Americas, at GE Digital, discussed how leveraging the Industrial Internet a...
In addition to all the benefits, IoT is also bringing new kind of customer experience challenges - cars that unlock themselves, thermostats turning houses into saunas and baby video monitors broadcasting over the internet. This list can only increase because while IoT services should be intuitive and simple to use, the delivery ecosystem is a myriad of potential problems as IoT explodes complexity. So finding a performance issue is like finding the proverbial needle in the haystack.
UpGuard has become a member of the Center for Internet Security (CIS), and will continue to help businesses expand visibility into their cyber risk by providing hardening benchmarks to all customers. By incorporating these benchmarks, UpGuard's CSTAR solution builds on its lead in providing the most complete assessment of both internal and external cyber risk. CIS benchmarks are a widely accepted set of hardening guidelines that have been publicly available for years. Numerous solutions exist t...
There will be new vendors providing applications, middleware, and connected devices to support the thriving IoT ecosystem. This essentially means that electronic device manufacturers will also be in the software business. Many will be new to building embedded software or robust software. This creates an increased importance on software quality, particularly within the Industrial Internet of Things where business-critical applications are becoming dependent on products controlled by software. Qua...
DevOps at Cloud Expo – being held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA – announces that its Call for Papers is open. Born out of proven success in agile development, cloud computing, and process automation, DevOps is a macro trend you cannot afford to miss. From showcase success stories from early adopters and web-scale businesses, DevOps is expanding to organizations of all sizes, including the world's largest enterprises – and delivering real results. Am...
The 19th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. Cloud Expo, to be held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, brings together Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, Digital Transformation, Microservices and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportuni...
"We host and fully manage cloud data services, whether we store, the data, move the data, or run analytics on the data," stated Kamal Shannak, Senior Development Manager, Cloud Data Services, IBM, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
With the proliferation of both SQL and NoSQL databases, organizations can now target specific fit-for-purpose database tools for their different application needs regarding scalability, ease of use, ACID support, etc. Platform as a Service offerings make this even easier now, enabling developers to roll out their own database infrastructure in minutes with minimal management overhead. However, this same amount of flexibility also comes with the challenges of picking the right tool, on the right ...
IoT is rapidly changing the way enterprises are using data to improve business decision-making. In order to derive business value, organizations must unlock insights from the data gathered and then act on these. In their session at @ThingsExpo, Eric Hoffman, Vice President at EastBanc Technologies, and Peter Shashkin, Head of Development Department at EastBanc Technologies, discussed how one organization leveraged IoT, cloud technology and data analysis to improve customer experiences and effi...
The Internet of Things will challenge the status quo of how IT and development organizations operate. Or will it? Certainly the fog layer of IoT requires special insights about data ontology, security and transactional integrity. But the developmental challenges are the same: People, Process and Platform. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Craig Sproule, CEO of Metavine, demonstrated how to move beyond today's coding paradigm and shared the must-have mindsets for removing complexity from the develo...
SYS-CON Events announced today that MangoApps will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MangoApps provides modern company intranets and team collaboration software, allowing workers to stay connected and productive from anywhere in the world and from any device.
The IETF draft standard for M2M certificates is a security solution specifically designed for the demanding needs of IoT/M2M applications. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Brian Romansky, VP of Strategic Technology at TrustPoint Innovation, explained how M2M certificates can efficiently enable confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity on highly constrained devices.
Predictive analytics tools monitor, report, and troubleshoot in order to make proactive decisions about the health, performance, and utilization of storage. Most enterprises combine cloud and on-premise storage, resulting in blended environments of physical, virtual, cloud, and other platforms, which justifies more sophisticated storage analytics. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Peter McCallum, Vice President of Datacenter Solutions at FalconStor, discussed using predictive analytics to mon...
The IoT is changing the way enterprises conduct business. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Eric Hoffman, Vice President at EastBanc Technologies, discussed how businesses can gain an edge over competitors by empowering consumers to take control through IoT. He cited examples such as a Washington, D.C.-based sports club that leveraged IoT and the cloud to develop a comprehensive booking system. He also highlighted how IoT can revitalize and restore outdated business models, making them profitable ...