Welcome!

@BigDataExpo Authors: Liz McMillan, Pat Romanski, Elizabeth White, Yeshim Deniz, William Schmarzo

Related Topics: @BigDataExpo, Java IoT, Linux Containers, Agile Computing, @CloudExpo, Cloud Security

@BigDataExpo: Blog Post

In-Memory Database vs. In-Memory Data Grid By @GridGain | @CloudExpo [#BigData]

It's easy to start with technical differences between the two categories

A few months ago, I spoke at the conference where I explained the difference between caching and an in-memory data grid. Today, having realized that many people are also looking to better understand the difference between two major categories in in-memory computing: In-Memory Database and In-Memory Data Grid, I am sharing the succinct version of my thinking on this topic - thanks to a recent analyst call that helped to put everything in place :)

TL;DR

Skip to conclusion to get the bottom line.

Nomenclature
Let's clarify the naming and buzzwords first. In-Memory Database (IMDB) is a well-established category name and it is typically used unambiguously.

It is important to note that there is a new crop of traditional databases with serious In-Memory "options". That includes MS SQL 2014, Oracle's Exalytics and Exadata, and IBM DB2 with BLU offerings. The line is blurry between these and the new pure In-Memory Databases, and for the simplicity I'll continue to call them In-Memory Databases.

In-Memory Data Grids (IMDGs) are sometimes (but not very frequently) called In-Memory NoSQL/NewSQL Databases. Although the latter can be more accurate in some case - I am going to use the In-Memory Data Grid term in this article, as it tends to be the more widely used term.

Note that there are also In-Memory Compute Grids and In-Memory Computing Platforms that include or augment many of the features of In-Memory Data Grids and In-Memory Databases.

Confusing, eh? It is... and for consistency - going forward we'll just use these terms for the two main categories:

  • In-Memory Database
  • In-Memory Data Grid

Tiered Storage
It is also important to nail down what we mean by "In-Memory". Surprisingly - there's a lot of confusion here as well as some vendors refer to SSDs, Flash-on-PCI, Memory Channel Storage, and, of course, DRAM as "In-Memory".

In reality, most vendors support a Tiered Storage Model where some portion of the data is stored in DRAM (the fastest storage but with limited capacity) and then it gets overflown to a verity of flash or disk devices (slower but with more capacity) - so it is rarely a DRAM-only or Flash-only product. However, it's important to note that most products in both categories are often biased towards mostly DRAM or mostly flash/disk storage in their architecture.

Bottom line is that products vary greatly in what they mean by "In-Memory" but in the end they all have a significant "In-Memory" component.

Technical Differences
It's easy to start with technical differences between the two categories.

Most In-Memory Databases are your father's RDBMS that store data "in memory" instead of disk. That's practically all there's to it. They provide good SQL support with only a modest list of unsupported SQL features, shipped with ODBC/JDBC drivers and can be used in place of existing RDBMS often without significant changes.

In-Memory Data Grids typically lack full ANSI SQL support but instead provide MPP-based (Massively Parallel Processing) capabilities where data is spread across large cluster of commodity servers and processed in explicitly parallel fashion. The main access pattern is key/value access, MapReduce, various forms of HPC-like processing, and a limited distributed SQL querying and indexing capabilities.

It is important to note that there is a significant crossover from In-Memory Data Grids to In-Memory Databases in terms of SQL support. GridGain, for example, provides pretty serious and constantly growing support for SQL including pluggable indexing, distributed joins optimization, custom SQL functions, etc.

Speed Only vs. Speed + Scalability
One of the crucial differences between In-Memory Data Grids and In-Memory Databases lies in the ability to scale to hundreds and thousands of servers. That is the In-Memory Data Grid's inherent capability for such scale due to their MPP architecture, and the In-Memory Database's explicit inability to scale due to fact that SQL joins, in general, cannot be efficiently performed in a distribution context.

It's one of the dirty secrets of In-Memory Databases: one of their most useful features, SQL joins, is also is their Achilles heel when it comes to scalability. This is the fundamental reason why most existing SQL databases (disk or memory based) are based on vertically scalable SMP (Symmetrical Processing) architecture unlike In-Memory Data Grids that utilize the much more horizontally scalable MPP approach.

It's important to note that both In-Memory Data Grids and In-Memory Database can achieve similar speed in a local non-distributed context. In the end - they both do all processing in memory.

But only In-Memory Data Grids can natively scale to hundreds and thousands of nodes providing unprecedented scalability and unrivaled throughput.

Replace Database vs. Change Application
Apart from scalability, there is another difference that is important for uses cases where In-Memory Data Grids or In-Memory Database are tasked with speeding up existing systems or applications.

An In-Memory Data Grid always works with an existing database providing a layer of massively distributed in-memory storage and processing between the database and the application. Applications then rely on this layer for super-fast data access and processing. Most In-Memory Data Grids can seamlessly read-through and write-through from and to databases, when necessary, and generally are highly integrated with existing databases.

In exchange - developers need to make some changes to the application to take advantage of these new capabilities. The application no longer "talks" SQL only, but needs to learn how to use MPP, MapReduce or other techniques of data processing.

In-Memory Databases provide almost a mirror opposite picture: they often requirereplacing your existing database (unless you use one of those In-Memory "options" to temporary boost your database performance) - but will demand significantly less changes to the application itself as it will continue to rely on SQL (albeit a modified dialect of it).

In the end, both approaches have their advantages and disadvantages, and they may often depend in part on organizational policies and politics as much as on their technical merits.

Conclusion
The bottom line should be pretty clear by now.

If you are developing a green-field, brand new system or application the choice is pretty clear in favor of In-Memory Data Grids. You get the best of the two worlds: you get to work with the existing databases in your organization where necessary, and enjoy tremendous performance and scalability benefits of In-Memory Data Grids - both of which are highly integrated.

If you are, however, modernizing your existing enterprise system or application the choice comes down to this:

You will want to use an In-Memory Database if the following applies to you:

  • You can replace or upgrade your existing disk-based RDBMS
  • You cannot make changes to your applications
  • You care about speed, but don't care as much about scalability

In other words - you boost your application's speed by replacing or upgrading RDBMS without significantly touching the application itself.

On the other hand, you want to use an In-Memory Data Grid if the following applies to you:

  • You cannot replace your existing disk-based RDBMS
  • You can make changes to (the data access subsystem of) your application
  • You care about speed and especially about scalability, and don't want to trade one for the other

In other words - with an In-Memory Data Grid you can boost your application's speed and provide massive scale by tweaking the application, but without making changes to your existing database.

It can be summarized it in the following table:


In-Memory Data GridIn-Memory Database
Existing Application Changed Unchanged
Existing RDBMS Unchanged Changed or Replaced
Speed Yes Yes
Max. Scalability Yes No

More Stories By Nikita Ivanov

Nikita Ivanov is founder and CEO of GridGain Systems, started in 2007 and funded by RTP Ventures and Almaz Capital. Nikita has led GridGain to develop advanced and distributed in-memory data processing technologies – the top Java in-memory computing platform starting every 10 seconds around the world today.

Nikita has over 20 years of experience in software application development, building HPC and middleware platforms, contributing to the efforts of other startups and notable companies including Adaptec, Visa and BEA Systems. Nikita was one of the pioneers in using Java technology for server side middleware development while working for one of Europe’s largest system integrators in 1996.

He is an active member of Java middleware community, contributor to the Java specification, and holds a Master’s degree in Electro Mechanics from Baltic State Technical University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

@BigDataExpo Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cedexis will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Cedexis is the leader in data-driven enterprise global traffic management. Whether optimizing traffic through datacenters, clouds, CDNs, or any combination, Cedexis solutions drive quality and cost-effectiveness.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Enroute Lab will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Enroute Lab is an industrial design, research and development company of unmanned robotic vehicle system. For more information, please visit http://elab.co.jp/.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Mobile Create USA will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Mobile Create USA Inc. is an MVNO-based business model that uses portable communication devices and cellular-based infrastructure in the development, sales, operation and mobile communications systems incorporating GPS capabi...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Suzuki Inc. will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Suzuki Inc. is a semiconductor-related business, including sales of consuming parts, parts repair, and maintenance for semiconductor manufacturing machines, etc. It is also a health care business providing experimental research for...
Cloud-based disaster recovery is critical to any production environment and is a high priority for many enterprise organizations today. Nearly 40% of organizations have had to execute their BCDR plan due to a service disruption in the past two years. Zerto on IBM Cloud offer VMware and Microsoft customers simple, automated recovery of on-premise VMware and Microsoft workloads to IBM Cloud data centers.
Real IoT production deployments running at scale are collecting sensor data from hundreds / thousands / millions of devices. The goal is to take business-critical actions on the real-time data and find insights from stored datasets. In his session at @ThingsExpo, John Walicki, Watson IoT Developer Advocate at IBM Cloud, will provide a fast-paced developer journey that follows the IoT sensor data from generation, to edge gateway, to edge analytics, to encryption, to the IBM Bluemix cloud, to Wa...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Massive Networks, that helps your business operate seamlessly with fast, reliable, and secure internet and network solutions, has been named "Exhibitor" of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo ®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. As a premier telecommunications provider, Massive Networks is headquartered out of Louisville, Colorado. With years of experience under their belt, their team of...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Nihon Micron will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Nihon Micron Co., Ltd. strives for technological innovation to establish high-density, high-precision processing technology for providing printed circuit board and metal mount RFID tags used for communication devices. For more inf...
SYS-CON Events announced today that mruby Forum will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. mruby is the lightweight implementation of the Ruby language. We introduce mruby and the mruby IoT framework that enhances development productivity. For more information, visit http://forum.mruby.org/.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Ryobi Systems will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Ryobi Systems Co., Ltd., as an information service company, specialized in business support for local governments and medical industry. We are challenging to achive the precision farming with AI. For more information, visit http:...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SIGMA Corporation will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. uLaser flow inspection device from the Japanese top share to Global Standard! Then, make the best use of data to flip to next page. For more information, visit http://www.sigma-k.co.jp/en/.
Today traditional IT approaches leverage well-architected compute/networking domains to control what applications can access what data, and how. DevOps includes rapid application development/deployment leveraging concepts like containerization, third-party sourced applications and databases. Such applications need access to production data for its test and iteration cycles. Data Security? That sounds like a roadblock to DevOps vs. protecting the crown jewels to those in IT.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Daiya Industry will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Daiya Industry specializes in orthotic support systems and assistive devices with pneumatic artificial muscles in order to contribute to an extended healthy life expectancy. For more information, please visit https://www.daiyak...
SYS-CON Events announced today that B2Cloud will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. B2Cloud specializes in IoT devices for preventive and predictive maintenance in any kind of equipment retrieving data like Energy consumption, working time, temperature, humidity, pressure, etc.
Automation is enabling enterprises to design, deploy, and manage more complex, hybrid cloud environments. Yet the people who manage these environments must be trained in and understanding these environments better than ever before. A new era of analytics and cognitive computing is adding intelligence, but also more complexity, to these cloud environments. How smart is your cloud? How smart should it be? In this power panel at 20th Cloud Expo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, paneli...
SYS-CON Events announced today that NetApp has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. NetApp is the data authority for hybrid cloud. NetApp provides a full range of hybrid cloud data services that simplify management of applications and data across cloud and on-premises environments to accelerate digital transformation. Together with their partners, NetApp em...
What is the best strategy for selecting the right offshore company for your business? In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Alan Winters, U.S. Head of Business Development at MobiDev, will discuss the things to look for - positive and negative - in evaluating your options. He will also discuss how to maximize productivity with your offshore developers. Before you start your search, clearly understand your business needs and how that impacts software choices.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Interface Corporation will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Interface Corporation is a company developing, manufacturing and marketing high quality and wide variety of industrial computers and interface modules such as PCIs and PCI express. For more information, visit http://www.i...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Keisoku Research Consultant Co. will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Keisoku Research Consultant, Co. offers research and consulting in a wide range of civil engineering-related fields from information construction to preservation of cultural properties. For more information, vi...
SYS-CON Events announced today that MIRAI Inc. will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MIRAI Inc. are IT consultants from the public sector whose mission is to solve social issues by technology and innovation and to create a meaningful future for people.