|By Michael Bushong||
|May 28, 2014 06:00 AM EDT||
The rapid growth in compute demand is well understood. To keep up with accelerating requirements, CPUs have gone through a massive transformation over the years. Starting with relatively low-capacity CPUs, the expansion of capability to what is available today has certainly been remarkable – enough to satisfy even Gordon Moore. But keeping up with demand was not a matter of simply making bigger and faster chips. To get more capacity, we actually went smaller.
As it turns out, there are practical limitations to just scaling things larger. To get more capacity out of individual CPUs, we went from large single cores to multi-core processors. This obviously required a change in applications to take advantage of multiple cores. The result is a distributed architecture and the proliferation of “scale out” as a buzzword in our industry.
From an application perspective, the trend continues. Applications that require performance continue to move to multi-tiered applications that are distributed across a number of VMs. This is true for massive web-scale applications like Facebook, but also for other applications like MapReduce.
To get bigger, we get smaller
The technology trend is clear: to get more output, move to smaller blocks of capacity, and coordinate workloads across that capacity.
If this is true, then the future will be lots of small pools of resources that rely on the network for interconnectivity. As applications become more distributed, then performance between these pools becomes even more critical. Even small amounts of pool-to-pool latency can aggregate up into significant impacts, either because of interesting failure conditions with asynchronous operations or because of the cumulative performance impact.
As interconnectivity takes a larger role, we should expect the discussion of commoditization of network resources to expand. Today, there is a strong argument around commoditizing the switch hardware (largely via merchant silicon) and the switch operating system (through players like Cumulus, Big Switch, and Pica8). But massive distribution will require both a commoditized interconnect and a commoditized orchestration platform.
On the latter, it would seem that OpenDaylight is poised to lead the charge. With an industry-backed open source solution, it will be difficult to justify premium control products, which should be sufficient in driving that aspect of the solution towards commodity. But that still leaves the interconnect piece unaccounted for.
Getting to a cheaper interconnect
There is probably a case to be made for leaf-spine architectures here, but if the number of servers continues to expand, there are some ugly economics at play. Scaling out in a leaf-spine architecture requires scaling up at the same time. As the interconnect demands increase, the number of spine switches increases. You eventually get into spines of spines, which starts to look an awful like like traditional three-tier architectures.
The sheer number of devices and cables drive the cost unfavorably. And when you consider the long-term operational costs tied to power, cooling, space, and management, it’s unclear where the budgetary breaking point is. Beyond just the costs, the other issue here is that every time a new layer is added, you add a couple of more fabric switch hops. If application performance is based on both capacity and latency, then every time you add switch hops, you incur a potentially heavy performance penalty.
At some point, you need to move away from multi-hop connectivity through the fabric.
Moving away from multi-hop fabrics
Instinctively, we already know this. There is already a tendency to rack gear up in close proximity to other gear to which it is tied. You might, for example, balance Hadoop loads across a number of servers that are in the same rack. Essentially, what we are doing in these cases is acknowledging that proximity matters, and we are statically designing for it.
But what happens when things aren’t static?
In a datacenter where applications are portable across servers, the network capacity cannot be statically planned. And as application requirements change (often dynamically as load changes), then the network capacity demands will also change. This requires an interconnect that is both high in capacity and dynamic.
This problem is slightly different than the compute problem. On the compute side, it was enough to free up resources (or create additional ones) and then move the application to the resource. In this case, the application is fixed, which means the capacity has to move to the application. When capacity is statically allocated, this poses a problem.
The bottom line
The only solutions here are to either over provision everything, or move towards a dynamic interconnect. The first is counter to the trends we learn from compute – make things smaller and more distributed. In this case you get out of the problem by paying for it. The question is whether this flies in the face of all the commoditization trends. What good is commoditizing something if the end solution requires buying a ton more? You would have to see cost declines match capacity increases, but this seems unlikely as there is no upper limit for capacity whereas cost will asymptotically approach some profit threshold.
If the trends in compute and storage hold true for networking, then the current trajectory of some networking solutions will need to change. Learning from the past is a great way to shape the future.
[Today’s fun fact: Lobster was one of the main entrees at the first Thanksgiving dinner. They also had Cheddar Bay Biscuits I think.]
Join Impiger for their featured webinar: ‘Cloud Computing: A Roadmap to Modern Software Delivery’ on November 10, 2016, at 12:00 pm CST. Very few companies have not experienced some impact to their IT delivery due to the evolution of cloud computing. This webinar is not about deciding whether you should entertain moving some or all of your IT to the cloud, but rather, a detailed look under the hood to help IT professionals understand how cloud adoption has evolved and what trends will impact th...
Oct. 27, 2016 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 695
More and more brands have jumped on the IoT bandwagon. We have an excess of wearables – activity trackers, smartwatches, smart glasses and sneakers, and more that track seemingly endless datapoints. However, most consumers have no idea what “IoT” means. Creating more wearables that track data shouldn't be the aim of brands; delivering meaningful, tangible relevance to their users should be. We're in a period in which the IoT pendulum is still swinging. Initially, it swung toward "smart for smar...
Oct. 27, 2016 11:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,239
Enterprises have been using both Big Data and virtualization for years. Until recently, however, most enterprises have not combined the two. Big Data's demands for higher levels of performance, the ability to control quality-of-service (QoS), and the ability to adhere to SLAs have kept it on bare metal, apart from the modern data center cloud. With recent technology innovations, we've seen the advantages of bare metal erode to such a degree that the enhanced flexibility and reduced costs that cl...
Oct. 27, 2016 11:15 AM EDT Reads: 537
In past @ThingsExpo presentations, Joseph di Paolantonio has explored how various Internet of Things (IoT) and data management and analytics (DMA) solution spaces will come together as sensor analytics ecosystems. This year, in his session at @ThingsExpo, Joseph di Paolantonio from DataArchon, will be adding the numerous Transportation areas, from autonomous vehicles to “Uber for containers.” While IoT data in any one area of Transportation will have a huge impact in that area, combining sensor...
Oct. 27, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,148
Intelligent machines are here. Robots, self-driving cars, drones, bots and many IoT devices are becoming smarter with Machine Learning. In her session at @ThingsExpo, Sudha Jamthe, CEO of IoTDisruptions.com, will discuss the next wave of business disruption at the junction of IoT and AI, impacting many industries and set to change our lives, work and world as we know it.
Oct. 27, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 255
With an estimated 50 billion devices connected to the Internet by 2020, several industries will begin to expand their capabilities for retaining end point data at the edge to better utilize the range of data types and sheer volume of M2M data generated by the Internet of Things. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Don DeLoach, CEO and President of Infobright, discussed the infrastructures businesses will need to implement to handle this explosion of data by providing specific use cases for filterin...
Oct. 27, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 3,051
Security, data privacy, reliability, and regulatory compliance are critical factors when evaluating whether to move business applications from in-house, client-hosted environments to a cloud platform. Quality assurance plays a vital role in ensuring that the appropriate level of risk assessment, verification, and validation takes place to ensure business continuity during the migration to a new cloud platform.
Oct. 27, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,103
DevOps is speeding towards the IT world like a freight train and the hype around it is deafening. There is no reason to be afraid of this change as it is the natural reaction to the agile movement that revolutionized development just a few years ago. By definition, DevOps is the natural alignment of IT performance to business profitability. The relevance of this has yet to be quantified but it has been suggested that the route to the CEO’s chair will come from the IT leaders that successfully ma...
Oct. 27, 2016 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 16,640
Ask someone to architect an Internet of Things (IoT) solution and you are guaranteed to see a reference to the cloud. This would lead you to believe that IoT requires the cloud to exist. However, there are many IoT use cases where the cloud is not feasible or desirable. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Dave McCarthy, Director of Products at Bsquare Corporation, will discuss the strategies that exist to extend intelligence directly to IoT devices and sensors, freeing them from the constraints of ...
Oct. 27, 2016 10:15 AM EDT Reads: 3,220
We are always online. We access our data, our finances, work, and various services on the Internet. But we live in a congested world of information in which the roads were built two decades ago. The quest for better, faster Internet routing has been around for a decade, but nobody solved this problem. We’ve seen band aid approaches like CDNs that attack a niche's slice of static content part of the Internet, but that’s it. It does not address the dynamic services-based Internet of today. It doe...
Oct. 27, 2016 10:15 AM EDT Reads: 2,047
What happens when the different parts of a vehicle become smarter than the vehicle itself? As we move toward the era of smart everything, hundreds of entities in a vehicle that communicate with each other, the vehicle and external systems create a need for identity orchestration so that all entities work as a conglomerate. Much like an orchestra without a conductor, without the ability to secure, control, and connect the link between a vehicle’s head unit, devices, and systems and to manage the ...
Oct. 27, 2016 10:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,416
DevOps is being widely accepted (if not fully adopted) as essential in enterprise IT. But as Enterprise DevOps gains maturity, expands scope, and increases velocity, the need for data-driven decisions across teams becomes more acute. DevOps teams in any modern business must wrangle the ‘digital exhaust’ from the delivery toolchain, "pervasive" and "cognitive" computing, APIs and services, mobile devices and applications, the Internet of Things, and now even blockchain. In this power panel at @...
Oct. 27, 2016 09:15 AM EDT Reads: 2,159
@ThingsExpo has been named the Top 5 Most Influential M2M Brand by Onalytica in the ‘Machine to Machine: Top 100 Influencers and Brands.' Onalytica analyzed the online debate on M2M by looking at over 85,000 tweets to provide the most influential individuals and brands that drive the discussion. According to Onalytica the "analysis showed a very engaged community with a lot of interactive tweets. The M2M discussion seems to be more fragmented and driven by some of the major brands present in the...
Oct. 27, 2016 08:45 AM EDT Reads: 11,587
In the 21st century, security on the Internet has become one of the most important issues. We hear more and more about cyber-attacks on the websites of large corporations, banks and even small businesses. When online we’re concerned not only for our own safety but also our privacy. We have to know that hackers usually start their preparation by investigating the private information of admins – the habits, interests, visited websites and so on. On the other hand, our own security is in danger bec...
Oct. 27, 2016 08:15 AM EDT Reads: 545
Amazon has gradually rolled out parts of its IoT offerings, but these are just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to optimizing their backend AWS offerings, Amazon is laying the ground work to be a major force in IoT - especially in the connected home and office. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Kocher, founder and managing director of Grey Heron, explained how Amazon is extending its reach to become a major force in IoT by building on its dominant cloud IoT platform, its Dash Button strat...
Oct. 27, 2016 07:00 AM EDT Reads: 4,938
19th Cloud Expo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Meanwhile, 94% of enterpri...
Oct. 27, 2016 07:00 AM EDT Reads: 5,022
SYS-CON Events announced today that Streamlyzer will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Streamlyzer is a powerful analytics for video streaming service that enables video streaming providers to monitor and analyze QoE (Quality-of-Experience) from end-user devices in real time.
Oct. 27, 2016 06:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,095
You have great SaaS business app ideas. You want to turn your idea quickly into a functional and engaging proof of concept. You need to be able to modify it to meet customers' needs, and you need to deliver a complete and secure SaaS application. How could you achieve all the above and yet avoid unforeseen IT requirements that add unnecessary cost and complexity? You also want your app to be responsive in any device at any time. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Mark Allen, General Manager of...
Oct. 27, 2016 06:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,068
Cloud based infrastructure deployment is becoming more and more appealing to customers, from Fortune 500 companies to SMEs due to its pay-as-you-go model. Enterprise storage vendors are able to reach out to these customers by integrating in cloud based deployments; this needs adaptability and interoperability of the products confirming to cloud standards such as OpenStack, CloudStack, or Azure. As compared to off the shelf commodity storage, enterprise storages by its reliability, high-availabil...
Oct. 27, 2016 05:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,275
The IoT industry is now at a crossroads, between the fast-paced innovation of technologies and the pending mass adoption by global enterprises. The complexity of combining rapidly evolving technologies and the need to establish practices for market acceleration pose a strong challenge to global enterprises as well as IoT vendors. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Clark Smith, senior product manager for Numerex, will discuss how Numerex, as an experienced, established IoT provider, has embraced a ...
Oct. 27, 2016 05:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,219