Click here to close now.

Welcome!

Big Data Journal Authors: Pat Romanski, Liz McMillan, Ian Khan, Roger Strukhoff, Harry Trott

Blog Feed Post

What networking can learn from CPUs

The rapid growth in compute demand is well understood. To keep up with accelerating requirements, CPUs have gone through a massive transformation over the years. Starting with relatively low-capacity CPUs, the expansion of capability to what is available today has certainly been remarkable – enough to satisfy even Gordon Moore. But keeping up with demand was not a matter of simply making bigger and faster chips. To get more capacity, we actually went smaller.

As it turns out, there are practical limitations to just scaling things larger. To get more capacity out of individual CPUs, we went from large single cores to multi-core processors. This obviously required a change in applications to take advantage of multiple cores. The result is a distributed architecture and the proliferation of “scale out” as a buzzword in our industry.

From an application perspective, the trend continues. Applications that require performance continue to move to multi-tiered applications that are distributed across a number of VMs. This is true for massive web-scale applications like Facebook, but also for other applications like MapReduce.

To get bigger, we get smaller

The technology trend is clear: to get more output, move to smaller blocks of capacity, and coordinate workloads across that capacity.

If this is true, then the future will be lots of small pools of resources that rely on the network for interconnectivity. As applications become more distributed, then performance between these pools becomes even more critical. Even small amounts of pool-to-pool latency can aggregate up into significant impacts, either because of interesting failure conditions with asynchronous operations or because of the cumulative performance impact.

As interconnectivity takes a larger role, we should expect the discussion of commoditization of network resources to expand. Today, there is a strong argument around commoditizing the switch hardware (largely via merchant silicon) and the switch operating system (through players like Cumulus, Big Switch, and Pica8). But massive distribution will require both a commoditized interconnect and a commoditized orchestration platform.

On the latter, it would seem that OpenDaylight is poised to lead the charge. With an industry-backed open source solution, it will be difficult to justify premium control products, which should be sufficient in driving that aspect of the solution towards commodity. But that still leaves the interconnect piece unaccounted for.

Getting to a cheaper interconnect

There is probably a case to be made for leaf-spine architectures here, but if the number of servers continues to expand, there are some ugly economics at play. Scaling out in a leaf-spine architecture requires scaling up at the same time. As the interconnect demands increase, the number of spine switches increases. You eventually get into spines of spines, which starts to look an awful like like traditional three-tier architectures.

The sheer number of devices and cables drive the cost unfavorably. And when you consider the long-term operational costs tied to power, cooling, space, and management, it’s unclear where the budgetary breaking point is. Beyond just the costs, the other issue here is that every time a new layer is added, you add a couple of more fabric switch hops. If application performance is based on both capacity and latency, then every time you add switch hops, you incur a potentially heavy performance penalty.

At some point, you need to move away from multi-hop connectivity through the fabric.

Moving away from multi-hop fabrics

Instinctively, we already know this. There is already a tendency to rack gear up in close proximity to other gear to which it is tied. You might, for example, balance Hadoop loads across a number of servers that are in the same rack. Essentially, what we are doing in these cases is acknowledging that proximity matters, and we are statically designing for it.

But what happens when things aren’t static?

In a datacenter where applications are portable across servers, the network capacity cannot be statically planned. And as application requirements change (often dynamically as load changes), then the network capacity demands will also change. This requires an interconnect that is both high in capacity and dynamic.

This problem is slightly different than the compute problem. On the compute side, it was enough to free up resources (or create additional ones) and then move the application to the resource. In this case, the application is fixed, which means the capacity has to move to the application. When capacity is statically allocated, this poses a problem.

The bottom line

The only solutions here are to either over provision everything, or move towards a dynamic interconnect. The first is counter to the trends we learn from compute – make things smaller and more distributed. In this case you get out of the problem by paying for it. The question is whether this flies in the face of all the commoditization trends. What good is commoditizing something if the end solution requires buying a ton more? You would have to see cost declines match capacity increases, but this seems unlikely as there is no upper limit for capacity whereas cost will asymptotically approach some profit threshold.

If the trends in compute and storage hold true for networking, then the current trajectory of some networking solutions will need to change. Learning from the past is a great way to shape the future.

[Today’s fun fact: Lobster was one of the main entrees at the first Thanksgiving dinner. They also had Cheddar Bay Biscuits I think.]

The post What networking can learn from CPUs appeared first on Plexxi.

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Michael Bushong

The best marketing efforts leverage deep technology understanding with a highly-approachable means of communicating. Plexxi's Vice President of Marketing Michael Bushong has acquired these skills having spent 12 years at Juniper Networks where he led product management, product strategy and product marketing organizations for Juniper's flagship operating system, Junos. Michael spent the last several years at Juniper leading their SDN efforts across both service provider and enterprise markets. Prior to Juniper, Michael spent time at database supplier Sybase, and ASIC design tool companies Synopsis and Magma Design Automation. Michael's undergraduate work at the University of California Berkeley in advanced fluid mechanics and heat transfer lend new meaning to the marketing phrase "This isn't rocket science."

@BigDataExpo Stories
Software is eating the world. Companies that were not previously in the technology space now find themselves competing with Google and Amazon on speed of innovation. As the innovation cycle accelerates, companies must embrace rapid and constant change to both applications and their infrastructure, and find a way to deliver speed and agility of development without sacrificing reliability or efficiency of operations. In her Day 2 Keynote DevOps Summit, Victoria Livschitz, CEO of Qubell, discussed...
SYS-CON Events announced today that AIC, a leading provider of OEM/ODM server and storage solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. AIC is a leading provider of both standard OTS, off-the-shelf, and OEM/ODM server and storage solutions. With expert in-house design capabilities, validation, manufacturing and production, AIC's broad selection of products are highly flexible and are conf...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Vicom Computer Services, Inc., a provider of technology and service solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. They are located at booth #427. Vicom Computer Services, Inc. is a progressive leader in the technology industry for over 30 years. Headquartered in the NY Metropolitan area. Vicom provides products and services based on today’s requirements...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Blue Box has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's DevOps Summit New York, which will take place June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Blue Box delivers Private Cloud as a Service (PCaaS) to a worldwide customer base. Built on a technology platform leveraging decades of operational expertise in cloud and distributed systems, Blue Box Cloud is a managed private cloud product available in both hosted and on-prem versions. Each Blue Box ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Soha will exhibit at SYS-CON's DevOps Summit New York, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Soha delivers enterprise-grade application security, on any device, as agile as the cloud. This turnkey, cloud-based service enables customers to solve secure application access and delivery challenges that traditional or virtualized network solutions cannot solve because they are too expensive, inflexible and operational...
As cloud gives an opportunity to businesses to buy services externally – how is cloud impacting your customers? In his General Session at 15th Cloud Expo, Fabio Gori, Director of Worldwide Cloud Marketing at Cisco, provided answers to big questions: Do you see hybrid cloud as where the world is going? What benefits does it bring? And how does Cisco connect all of these clouds? He also discussed Intercloud and Cisco’s investment on it.
SYS-CON Events announced today that B2Cloud, a provider of enterprise resource planning software, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. B2cloud develops the software you need. They have the ideal tools to help you work with your clients. B2Cloud’s main solutions include AGIS – ERP, CLOHC, AGIS – Invoice, and IZUM
The world's leading Cloud event, Cloud Expo has launched Microservices Journal on the SYS-CON.com portal, featuring over 19,000 original articles, news stories, features, and blog entries. DevOps Journal is focused on this critical enterprise IT topic in the world of cloud computing. Microservices Journal offers top articles, news stories, and blog posts from the world's well-known experts and guarantees better exposure for its authors than any other publication. Follow new article posts on T...
SYS-CON Media announced today that @ThingsExpo Blog launched with 7,788 original stories. @ThingsExpo Blog offers top articles, news stories, and blog posts from the world's well-known experts and guarantees better exposure for its authors than any other publication. @ThingsExpo Blog can be bookmarked. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterprise IT since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago.
SYS-CON Events announced today that CenturyLink, Inc., a leader in the network services market, has been named “Platinum Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. CenturyLink is the third largest telecommunications company in the United States and is recognized as a leader in the network services market by technology industry analyst firms. The company is a global leader in cloud infrastructure and ...
A new definition of Big Data & the practical applications of the defined components & associated technical architecture models This presentation introduces a new definition of Big Data, along with the practical applications of the defined components and associated technical architecture models. In his session at Big Data Expo, Tony Shan will start with looking into the concept of Big Data and tracing back the first definition by Doug Laney, and then he will dive deep into the description of 3V...
SYS-CON Events announced today that MangoApps will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY., and the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MangoApps provides private all-in-one social intranets allowing workers to securely collaborate from anywhere in the world and from any device. Social, mobile, and eas...
There is no doubt that Big Data is here and getting bigger every day. Building a Big Data infrastructure today is no easy task. There are an enormous number of choices for database engines and technologies. To make things even more challenging, requirements are getting more sophisticated, and the standard paradigm of supporting historical analytics queries is often just one facet of what is needed. As Big Data growth continues, organizations are demanding real-time access to data, allowing immed...
The security devil is always in the details of the attack: the ones you've endured, the ones you prepare yourself to fend off, and the ones that, you fear, will catch you completely unaware and defenseless. The Internet of Things (IoT) is nothing if not an endless proliferation of details. It's the vision of a world in which continuous Internet connectivity and addressability is embedded into a growing range of human artifacts, into the natural world, and even into our smartphones, appliances, a...
Containers and microservices have become topics of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities. Accordingly, attendees at the upcoming 16th Cloud Expo at the Javits Center in New York June 9-11 will find fresh new content in a new track called PaaS | Containers & Microservices Containers are not being considered for the first time by the cloud community, but a current era of re-consideration has pushed them to the top of the cloud agenda. With the launch ...
SYS-CON Events announced today the IoT Bootcamp – Jumpstart Your IoT Strategy, being held June 9–10, 2015, in conjunction with 16th Cloud Expo and Internet of @ThingsExpo at the Javits Center in New York City. This is your chance to jumpstart your IoT strategy. Combined with real-world scenarios and use cases, the IoT Bootcamp is not just based on presentations but includes hands-on demos and walkthroughs. We will introduce you to a variety of Do-It-Yourself IoT platforms including Arduino, Ras...
The only place to be June 9-11 is Cloud Expo & @ThingsExpo 2015 East at the Javits Center in New York City. Join us there as delegates from all over the world come to listen to and engage with speakers & sponsors from the leading Cloud Computing, IoT & Big Data companies. Cloud Expo & @ThingsExpo are the leading events covering the booming market of Cloud Computing, IoT & Big Data for the enterprise. Speakers from all over the world will be hand-picked for their ability to explore the economic...
Buzzword alert: Microservices and IoT at a DevOps conference? What could possibly go wrong? Join this panel of experts as they peel away the buzz and discuss the important architectural principles behind implementing IoT solutions for the enterprise. As remote IoT devices and sensors become increasingly intelligent, they become part of our distributed cloud environment, and we must architect and code accordingly. At the very least, you’ll have no problem filling in your buzzword bingo cards.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Column Technologies, a global technology solutions company, will exhibit at SYS-CON's DevOps Summit 2015 New York, which will take place June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Established in 1998, Column Technologies is a leader in application performance and infrastructure management for commercial and federal markets. The company is headquartered in the United States, with a diverse and talented team of more than 350 employees around th...
SYS-CON Events announced today that CodeFutures, a leading supplier of database performance tools, has been named a “Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9–11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. CodeFutures is an independent software vendor focused on providing tools that deliver database performance tools that increase productivity during database development and increase database performance and scalability during production.