Welcome!

@BigDataExpo Authors: Elizabeth White, Yeshim Deniz, Shelly Palmer, William Schmarzo, Pat Romanski

Related Topics: Microservices Expo, Java IoT, Linux Containers, Agile Computing, Cloud Security, @BigDataExpo

Microservices Expo: Article

Twitter’s Story: How Homegrown Load Testing Tools Can Misfire

If Twitter built their own tool to perform their own load test, why did the selfie cause their site to crash?

The selfie that changed the world, or at least Twitter, has been in the news for the past month. On March 2, 2014, the infamous Oscar selfie of Ellen and her celebrity friends broke a record of 2 million retweets before midnight the same night. That record was previously set by President Barack Obama, hugging first lady Michelle Obama after his 2012 re-election.

The selfie caused Twitter to crash for more than 20 minutes, also breaking the record for the longest crash of the social media site. Twitter was infamous for crashing in its early days (anyone remember "Fail Whale?"), so it's no wonder the social media giant worked extra hard to completely prepare their website infrastructure before going public in November 2013. This included building their own load testing tool, Iago, in 2012.

If they built their own tool to perform their own load test, why did the selfie cause their site to crash? The Oscar selfie crash is a perfect example of what companies can easily overlook. Twitter did not test their users properly and their homegrown tool clearly doesn't solve all of their problems... their servers still crash.

What is Iago and why did Twitter decide to make it? And what does that have to do with your decision to use homegrown tools versus vendor load testing tools? Don't worry, we will tell you.

Twitter's Homegrown Load Testing Tool: Iago
Iago was created in June of 2012 by Twitter's internal engineering team. According to Twitter, Iago is a load generator created to help the social media site test services before they encounter production traffic. Chris Aniszczyk, Head of Open Source at Twitter, said, "There are many load generators available in the open source and commercial software worlds, but Iago provided us with capabilities that are uniquely suited for Twitter's environment and the precise degree to which we need to test our services."

Basically their homegrown tool was completely customized for their platform alone - a very attractive aspect of developing your own tool.

The three attributes Twitter focused on in creating Iago were:

  1. High performance: Iago was designed to generate traffic in a precise and predictable way, to minimize variance between test runs and allow comparisons to be made between development iterations.
  2. Multi-protocol: Modeling a system as complex as Twitter can be difficult, but it's made easier by decomposing it into component services. Once decomposed, each piece can be tested in isolation; which requires the load generator to speak each service's protocol. Twitter has in excess of 100 such services, and Iago tests most of them using built-in support for the internal protocols Twitter uses.
  3. Extensible: Iago is designed for engineers. It assumes the person building the system will also be interested in validating performance. As such, the tool is designed from the ground up to be extensible - making it easy to generate new traffic types, over new protocols and with individualized traffic sources.

Why Twitter Couldn't Handle Ellen's Selfie
If we were to do the math, Iago was up and running for nearly two years before the Oscar selfie. What happened to their load testing tool?

There were two main reasons why Twitter crashed. First, the tweet Ellen posted was a picture. On Twitter, a tweet accounts for only 260 bytes of data while a picture on Twitter accounts for 33KB of data, almost 130 times as much as a tweet. Second, Twitter's distributed server system was already at max capacity so the load taken on by the website couldn't be distributed to any nearby servers.

Twitter made one major mistake contributing to the crash back in March: they didn't anticipate and replicate real user activity. Most likely Iago wasn't instructed to generate a load based on a picture being retweeted millions of times, thus Twitter didn't know what to expect when the Oscars rolled around.

Homegrown Tool vs. Vendor Load Testing Solutions
Twitter was looking for a DIY homegrown solution because of their unique platform, and while most load testing tools seek to accomplish the same goal, there are always differences between tools. Here are some of the differences we see between homegrown and vendor-provided load testing tools.

Homegrown

Vendor

1. You can customize it - A homegrown tool, created completely from scratch, means you can build exactly what you think you need. But you don't get the benefit of lots of other people's experiences - so what you think you need may not turn out to be what you actually need.

2. Homegrown tools are free like a puppy is free - We have mentioned this analogy before in another post, and it needs to be brought up again. Homegrown tools aren't really free. You have to pay a team to keep them up and running.

3. What if someone leaves? - A couple of developers are experts on the tool they built, but what happens when they leave? Who is going to be your expert? If the new person isn't properly trained and if the code isn't well documented, then modifications to the code become extremely difficult.

1. Your vendor makes it extensible - A vendor that supports lots of users is constantly adding features and capabilities to support needs you may not have realized you have yet. With extensible APIs and SDKs, you still have the ability to add integrations and the protocol support your application demands.

2. You pay for something that works - With homegrown tools there is no guarantee that it will work 100% of the time. By paying a vendor to use their tool, you have assurances that your load testing tool won't let you down when you need it most.

3. Support Team - Vendors dedicate people to work on any issues and keep you worry-free. Their team of experts is available to make sure all of your questions and concerns are addressed.

Homegrown Tools Are Not for Everyone
Twitter's tool has done well to help them improve the performance of the service, but continued service disruptions show that it isn't perfect. A homegrown tool isn't always the best solution, and most of the time, companies do not have the resources handy to completely build their load testing tool from scratch. If you are interested in learning more about vendor options, give us a call. We're more than happy to help.

More Stories By Tim Hinds

Tim Hinds is the Product Marketing Manager for NeoLoad at Neotys. He has a background in Agile software development, Scrum, Kanban, Continuous Integration, Continuous Delivery, and Continuous Testing practices.

Previously, Tim was Product Marketing Manager at AccuRev, a company acquired by Micro Focus, where he worked with software configuration management, issue tracking, Agile project management, continuous integration, workflow automation, and distributed version control systems.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@BigDataExpo Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today that Fusic will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Fusic Co. provides mocks as virtual IoT devices. You can customize mocks, and get any amount of data at any time in your test. For more information, visit https://fusic.co.jp/english/.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Massive Networks, that helps your business operate seamlessly with fast, reliable, and secure internet and network solutions, has been named "Exhibitor" of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo ®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. As a premier telecommunications provider, Massive Networks is headquartered out of Louisville, Colorado. With years of experience under their belt, their team of...
21st International Cloud Expo, taking place October 31 - November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Me...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Enroute Lab will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Enroute Lab is an industrial design, research and development company of unmanned robotic vehicle system. For more information, please visit http://elab.co.jp/.
SYS-CON Events announced today that MIRAI Inc. will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MIRAI Inc. are IT consultants from the public sector whose mission is to solve social issues by technology and innovation and to create a meaningful future for people.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Mobile Create USA will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Mobile Create USA Inc. is an MVNO-based business model that uses portable communication devices and cellular-based infrastructure in the development, sales, operation and mobile communications systems incorporating GPS capabi...
Today traditional IT approaches leverage well-architected compute/networking domains to control what applications can access what data, and how. DevOps includes rapid application development/deployment leveraging concepts like containerization, third-party sourced applications and databases. Such applications need access to production data for its test and iteration cycles. Data Security? That sounds like a roadblock to DevOps vs. protecting the crown jewels to those in IT.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Interface Corporation will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Interface Corporation is a company developing, manufacturing and marketing high quality and wide variety of industrial computers and interface modules such as PCIs and PCI express. For more information, visit http://www.i...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Keisoku Research Consultant Co. will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Keisoku Research Consultant, Co. offers research and consulting in a wide range of civil engineering-related fields from information construction to preservation of cultural properties. For more information, vi...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SIGMA Corporation will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. uLaser flow inspection device from the Japanese top share to Global Standard! Then, make the best use of data to flip to next page. For more information, visit http://www.sigma-k.co.jp/en/.
SYS-CON Events announced today that B2Cloud will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. B2Cloud specializes in IoT devices for preventive and predictive maintenance in any kind of equipment retrieving data like Energy consumption, working time, temperature, humidity, pressure, etc.
Agile has finally jumped the technology shark, expanding outside the software world. Enterprises are now increasingly adopting Agile practices across their organizations in order to successfully navigate the disruptive waters that threaten to drown them. In our quest for establishing change as a core competency in our organizations, this business-centric notion of Agile is an essential component of Agile Digital Transformation. In the years since the publication of the Agile Manifesto, the conn...
SYS-CON Events announced today that NetApp has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. NetApp is the data authority for hybrid cloud. NetApp provides a full range of hybrid cloud data services that simplify management of applications and data across cloud and on-premises environments to accelerate digital transformation. Together with their partners, NetApp em...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Nihon Micron will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Nihon Micron Co., Ltd. strives for technological innovation to establish high-density, high-precision processing technology for providing printed circuit board and metal mount RFID tags used for communication devices. For more inf...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cedexis will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Cedexis is the leader in data-driven enterprise global traffic management. Whether optimizing traffic through datacenters, clouds, CDNs, or any combination, Cedexis solutions drive quality and cost-effectiveness.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Suzuki Inc. will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Suzuki Inc. is a semiconductor-related business, including sales of consuming parts, parts repair, and maintenance for semiconductor manufacturing machines, etc. It is also a health care business providing experimental research for...
Cloud applications are seeing a deluge of requests to support the exploding advanced analytics market. “Open analytics” is the emerging strategy to deliver that data through an open data access layer, in the cloud, to be directly consumed by external analytics tools and popular programming languages. An increasing number of data engineers and data scientists use a variety of platforms and advanced analytics languages such as SAS, R, Python and Java, as well as frameworks such as Hadoop and Spark...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Ryobi Systems will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Ryobi Systems Co., Ltd., as an information service company, specialized in business support for local governments and medical industry. We are challenging to achive the precision farming with AI. For more information, visit http:...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Daiya Industry will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Daiya Industry specializes in orthotic support systems and assistive devices with pneumatic artificial muscles in order to contribute to an extended healthy life expectancy. For more information, please visit https://www.daiyak...
Cloud-based disaster recovery is critical to any production environment and is a high priority for many enterprise organizations today. Nearly 40% of organizations have had to execute their BCDR plan due to a service disruption in the past two years. Zerto on IBM Cloud offer VMware and Microsoft customers simple, automated recovery of on-premise VMware and Microsoft workloads to IBM Cloud data centers.