Welcome!

@BigDataExpo Authors: Ed Featherston, Liz McMillan, Pat Romanski, Carmen Gonzalez, Yeshim Deniz

Related Topics: Microservices Expo, Java IoT, Linux Containers, Agile Computing, Cloud Security, @BigDataExpo

Microservices Expo: Article

Twitter’s Story: How Homegrown Load Testing Tools Can Misfire

If Twitter built their own tool to perform their own load test, why did the selfie cause their site to crash?

The selfie that changed the world, or at least Twitter, has been in the news for the past month. On March 2, 2014, the infamous Oscar selfie of Ellen and her celebrity friends broke a record of 2 million retweets before midnight the same night. That record was previously set by President Barack Obama, hugging first lady Michelle Obama after his 2012 re-election.

The selfie caused Twitter to crash for more than 20 minutes, also breaking the record for the longest crash of the social media site. Twitter was infamous for crashing in its early days (anyone remember "Fail Whale?"), so it's no wonder the social media giant worked extra hard to completely prepare their website infrastructure before going public in November 2013. This included building their own load testing tool, Iago, in 2012.

If they built their own tool to perform their own load test, why did the selfie cause their site to crash? The Oscar selfie crash is a perfect example of what companies can easily overlook. Twitter did not test their users properly and their homegrown tool clearly doesn't solve all of their problems... their servers still crash.

What is Iago and why did Twitter decide to make it? And what does that have to do with your decision to use homegrown tools versus vendor load testing tools? Don't worry, we will tell you.

Twitter's Homegrown Load Testing Tool: Iago
Iago was created in June of 2012 by Twitter's internal engineering team. According to Twitter, Iago is a load generator created to help the social media site test services before they encounter production traffic. Chris Aniszczyk, Head of Open Source at Twitter, said, "There are many load generators available in the open source and commercial software worlds, but Iago provided us with capabilities that are uniquely suited for Twitter's environment and the precise degree to which we need to test our services."

Basically their homegrown tool was completely customized for their platform alone - a very attractive aspect of developing your own tool.

The three attributes Twitter focused on in creating Iago were:

  1. High performance: Iago was designed to generate traffic in a precise and predictable way, to minimize variance between test runs and allow comparisons to be made between development iterations.
  2. Multi-protocol: Modeling a system as complex as Twitter can be difficult, but it's made easier by decomposing it into component services. Once decomposed, each piece can be tested in isolation; which requires the load generator to speak each service's protocol. Twitter has in excess of 100 such services, and Iago tests most of them using built-in support for the internal protocols Twitter uses.
  3. Extensible: Iago is designed for engineers. It assumes the person building the system will also be interested in validating performance. As such, the tool is designed from the ground up to be extensible - making it easy to generate new traffic types, over new protocols and with individualized traffic sources.

Why Twitter Couldn't Handle Ellen's Selfie
If we were to do the math, Iago was up and running for nearly two years before the Oscar selfie. What happened to their load testing tool?

There were two main reasons why Twitter crashed. First, the tweet Ellen posted was a picture. On Twitter, a tweet accounts for only 260 bytes of data while a picture on Twitter accounts for 33KB of data, almost 130 times as much as a tweet. Second, Twitter's distributed server system was already at max capacity so the load taken on by the website couldn't be distributed to any nearby servers.

Twitter made one major mistake contributing to the crash back in March: they didn't anticipate and replicate real user activity. Most likely Iago wasn't instructed to generate a load based on a picture being retweeted millions of times, thus Twitter didn't know what to expect when the Oscars rolled around.

Homegrown Tool vs. Vendor Load Testing Solutions
Twitter was looking for a DIY homegrown solution because of their unique platform, and while most load testing tools seek to accomplish the same goal, there are always differences between tools. Here are some of the differences we see between homegrown and vendor-provided load testing tools.

Homegrown

Vendor

1. You can customize it - A homegrown tool, created completely from scratch, means you can build exactly what you think you need. But you don't get the benefit of lots of other people's experiences - so what you think you need may not turn out to be what you actually need.

2. Homegrown tools are free like a puppy is free - We have mentioned this analogy before in another post, and it needs to be brought up again. Homegrown tools aren't really free. You have to pay a team to keep them up and running.

3. What if someone leaves? - A couple of developers are experts on the tool they built, but what happens when they leave? Who is going to be your expert? If the new person isn't properly trained and if the code isn't well documented, then modifications to the code become extremely difficult.

1. Your vendor makes it extensible - A vendor that supports lots of users is constantly adding features and capabilities to support needs you may not have realized you have yet. With extensible APIs and SDKs, you still have the ability to add integrations and the protocol support your application demands.

2. You pay for something that works - With homegrown tools there is no guarantee that it will work 100% of the time. By paying a vendor to use their tool, you have assurances that your load testing tool won't let you down when you need it most.

3. Support Team - Vendors dedicate people to work on any issues and keep you worry-free. Their team of experts is available to make sure all of your questions and concerns are addressed.

Homegrown Tools Are Not for Everyone
Twitter's tool has done well to help them improve the performance of the service, but continued service disruptions show that it isn't perfect. A homegrown tool isn't always the best solution, and most of the time, companies do not have the resources handy to completely build their load testing tool from scratch. If you are interested in learning more about vendor options, give us a call. We're more than happy to help.

More Stories By Tim Hinds

Tim Hinds is the Product Marketing Manager for NeoLoad at Neotys. He has a background in Agile software development, Scrum, Kanban, Continuous Integration, Continuous Delivery, and Continuous Testing practices.

Previously, Tim was Product Marketing Manager at AccuRev, a company acquired by Micro Focus, where he worked with software configuration management, issue tracking, Agile project management, continuous integration, workflow automation, and distributed version control systems.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@BigDataExpo Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today that Juniper Networks (NYSE: JNPR), an industry leader in automated, scalable and secure networks, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Juniper Networks challenges the status quo with products, solutions and services that transform the economics of networking. The company co-innovates with customers and partners to deliver automated, scalable and secure network...
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing Cloud strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @CloudExpo | @ThingsExpo, June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY and October 31 - November 2, 2017, Santa Clara Convention Center, CA. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is on the right path to Digital Transformation.
@GonzalezCarmen has been ranked the Number One Influencer and @ThingsExpo has been named the Number One Brand in the “M2M 2016: Top 100 Influencers and Brands” by Analytic. Onalytica analyzed tweets over the last 6 months mentioning the keywords M2M OR “Machine to Machine.” They then identified the top 100 most influential brands and individuals leading the discussion on Twitter.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Hitachi, the leading provider the Internet of Things and Digital Transformation, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Hitachi Data Systems, a wholly owned subsidiary of Hitachi, Ltd., offers an integrated portfolio of services and solutions that enable digital transformation through enhanced data management, governance, mobility and analytics. We help globa...
The 20th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. Cloud Expo, to be held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, brings together Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, Containers, Microservices and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportunity. Submit your speaking proposal ...
Blockchain is a shared, secure record of exchange that establishes trust, accountability and transparency across supply chain networks. Supported by the Linux Foundation's open source, open-standards based Hyperledger Project, Blockchain has the potential to improve regulatory compliance, reduce cost and time for product recall as well as advance trade. Are you curious about Blockchain and how it can provide you with new opportunities for innovation and growth? In her session at 20th Cloud Exp...
SYS-CON Events announced today that T-Mobile will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. As America's Un-carrier, T-Mobile US, Inc., is redefining the way consumers and businesses buy wireless services through leading product and service innovation. The Company's advanced nationwide 4G LTE network delivers outstanding wireless experiences to 67.4 million customers who are unwilling to compromise on ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Hitachi, the leading provider the Internet of Things and Digital Transformation, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Hitachi Data Systems, a wholly owned subsidiary of Hitachi, Ltd., offers an integrated portfolio of services and solutions that enable digital transformation through enhanced data management, governance, mobility and analytics. We help globa...
20th Cloud Expo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Grape Up will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct. 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Grape Up is a software company specializing in cloud native application development and professional services related to Cloud Foundry PaaS. With five expert teams that operate in various sectors of the market across the U.S. and Europe, Grape Up works with a variety of customers from emergi...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Super Micro Computer, Inc., a global leader in compute, storage and networking technologies, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Supermicro (NASDAQ: SMCI), the leading innovator in high-performance, high-efficiency server technology, is a premier provider of advanced server Building Block Solutions® for Data Center, Cloud Computing, Enterprise IT, Hadoop/...
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo 2016 in New York. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York, is co-located with 20th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry p...
Amazon has gradually rolled out parts of its IoT offerings in the last year, but these are just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to optimizing their back-end AWS offerings, Amazon is laying the ground work to be a major force in IoT – especially in the connected home and office. Amazon is extending its reach by building on its dominant Cloud IoT platform, its Dash Button strategy, recently announced Replenishment Services, the Echo/Alexa voice recognition control platform, the 6-7 strategic...
Bert Loomis was a visionary. This general session will highlight how Bert Loomis and people like him inspire us to build great things with small inventions. In their general session at 19th Cloud Expo, Harold Hannon, Architect at IBM Bluemix, and Michael O'Neill, Strategic Business Development at Nvidia, discussed the accelerating pace of AI development and how IBM Cloud and NVIDIA are partnering to bring AI capabilities to "every day," on-demand. They also reviewed two "free infrastructure" pr...
Data is an unusual currency; it is not restricted by the same transactional limitations as money or people. In fact, the more that you leverage your data across multiple business use cases, the more valuable it becomes to the organization. And the same can be said about the organization’s analytics. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Bill Schmarzo, CTO for the Big Data Practice at Dell EMC, introduced a methodology for capturing, enriching and sharing data (and analytics) across the organization...
The explosion of new web/cloud/IoT-based applications and the data they generate are transforming our world right before our eyes. In this rush to adopt these new technologies, organizations are often ignoring fundamental questions concerning who owns the data and failing to ask for permission to conduct invasive surveillance of their customers. Organizations that are not transparent about how their systems gather data telemetry without offering shared data ownership risk product rejection, regu...
Grape Up is a software company, specialized in cloud native application development and professional services related to Cloud Foundry PaaS. With five expert teams that operate in various sectors of the market across the USA and Europe, we work with a variety of customers from emerging startups to Fortune 1000 companies.
Financial Technology has become a topic of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities. Accordingly, attendees at the upcoming 20th Cloud Expo at the Javits Center in New York, June 6-8, 2017, will find fresh new content in a new track called FinTech.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Interoute, owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017 at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Interoute is the owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform which encompasses 12 data centers, 14 virtual data centers and 31 colocation centers, with connections to 195 add...
Multiple data types are pouring into IoT deployments. Data is coming in small packages as well as enormous files and data streams of many sizes. Widespread use of mobile devices adds to the total. In this power panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists will look at the tools and environments that are being put to use in IoT deployments, as well as the team skills a modern enterprise IT shop needs to keep things running, get a handle on all this data, and deli...