|By Application Security||
|March 2, 2013 09:00 AM EST||
It sounds like a parlor trick, but one of the benefits of API centric de-facto standards such as REST and JSON is they allow relatively seamless communication between software systems.
This makes it possible to combine technologies to instantly bring out new capabilities. In particular I want to talk about how an API Gateway can improve the security posture of a Hadoop installation without having to actually modify Hadoop itself. Sounds too good to be true? Read on.
Hadoop and RESTful APIs
Hadoop is mostly a behind the firewall affair, and APIs are generally used for exposing data or capabilities for other systems, users or mobile devices. In the case of Hadoop there are three main RESTful APIs to talk about. This list isn’t exhaustive but it covers the main APIs.
- WebHDFS – Offers complete control over files and directories in HDFS
- HBase REST API – Offers access to insert, create, delete, single/multiple cell values
- HCatalog REST API – Provides job control for Map/Reduce, Pig and Hive as well as to access and manipulate HCatalog DDL data
These APIs are very useful because anyone with an HTTP client can potentially manipulate data in Hadoop. This, of course, is like using a knife all-blade – it’s very easy to cut yourself. To take an example, WebHDFS allows RESTful calls for directory listings, creating new directories and files, as well as file deletion. Worse, the default security model requires nothing more than inserting “root” into the HTTP call.
To its credit, most distributions of Hadoop also offer Kerberos SPNEGO authentication, but additional work is needed to support other types of authentication and authorization schemes, and not all REST calls that expose sensitive data (such as a list of files) are secured. Here are some of the other challenges:
- Fragmented Enforcement – Some REST calls leak information and require no credentials
- Developer Centric Interfaces – Full Java stack traces are passed back to callers, leaking system details
- Resource Protection – The Namenode is a single point of failure and excessive WebHDFS activity may threaten the cluster
- Consistent Security Policy – All APIs in Hadoop must be independently configured, managed and audited over time
This list is just a start, and to be fair, Hadoop is still evolving. We expect things to get better over time, but for Enterprises to unlock value from their “Big Data” projects now, they can’t afford to wait until security is perfect.
One model used in other domains is an API Gateway or proxy that sits between the Hadoop cluster and the client. Using this model, the cluster only trusts calls from the gateway and all potential API callers are forced to use the gateway. Further, the gateway capabilities are rich enough and expressive enough to perform the full depth and breadth of security for REST calls from authentication to message level security, tokenization, throttling, denial of service protection, attack protection and data translation. Even better, this provides a safe and effective way to expose Hadoop to mobile devices without worrying about performance, scalability and security. Here is the conceptual picture:
Intel Expressway API Manager and Intel Distribution of Apache Hadoop
In the previous diagram we are showing the Intel(R) Expressway API Manager acting as a proxy for WebHDFS, HBase and HCatalog APIs exposed from Intel’s Hadoop distribution. API Manager exposes RESTful APIs and also provides an out of the box subscription to Mashery to help evangelize APIs among a community of developers.
All of the policy enforcement is done at the HTTP layer by the gateway and the security administrator is free to rewrite the API to be more user friendly to the caller and the gateway will take care of mapping and rewriting the REST call to the format supported by Hadoop. In short, this model lets you provide instant Enterprise security for a good chunk of Hadoop capabilities without having to add a plug-in, additional code or a special distribution of Hadoop. So… just what can you do without touching Hadoop? To take WebHDFS as an example the following is possible with some configuration on the gateway itself:
- A gateway can lock-down the standard WebHDFS REST API and allow access only for specific users based on an Enterprise identity that may be stored in LDAP, Active Directory, Oracle, Siteminder, IBM or Relational Databases.
- A gateway provides additional authentication methods such as X.509 certificates with CRL and OCSP checking, OAuth token handling, API keys support, WS-Security and SSL termination & acceleration for WebHDFS API calls. The gateway can expose secure versions of the WebDHFS API for external access
- A gateway can improve on the security model used by WebHDFS which carries identities in HTTP query parameters, which are more susceptible to credential leakage compared to a security model based on HTTP headers. The gateway can expose a variant of the WebHDFS API that expects credentials in the HTTP header and seamlessly maps this to the WebHDFS internal format
- The gateway workflow engine can maps a single function REST call into multiple WebHDFS calls. For example, the WebHDFS REST API requires two separate HTTP calls for file creation and file upload. The gateway can expose a single API for this that handles the sequential execution and error handling, exposing a single function to the user
- The gateway can strip and redact Java exception traces carried in the WebHDFS REST API responses ( for instance, JSON responses may carry org.apache.hadoop.security.AccessControlException.* which can spill details beneficial to an attacker
- The gateway can throttle and rate shape WebHDFS REST requests which can protect the Hadoop cluster from resource consumption from excessive HDFS writes, open file handles and excessive create, read, update and delete operations which might impact a running job.
This list is just the start, API manager can also perform selective encryption and data protection (such as PCI tokenization or PII format preserving encryption) on data as it is inserted or deleted from the Hadoop cluster, all by sitting in-between the caller and the cluster. So the parlor trick here is really moving the problem from trying to secure hadoop from the inside out to moving and centralizing security to the enforcement point. If you are looking for a way to expose “Big Data” outside the cluster, an the API Gateway model may be worth some investigation!
The post How to secure Hadoop without touching it – combining API Security and Hadoop appeared first on Security [email protected].
Providing secure, mobile access to sensitive data sets is a critical element in realizing the full potential of cloud computing. However, large data caches remain inaccessible to edge devices for reasons of security, size, format or limited viewing capabilities. Medical imaging, computer aided design and seismic interpretation are just a few examples of industries facing this challenge. Rather than fighting for incremental gains by pulling these datasets to edge devices, we need to embrace the i...
Jan. 19, 2017 05:30 PM EST Reads: 3,624
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo 2016 in New York. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York, is co-located with 20th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry p...
Jan. 19, 2017 04:45 PM EST Reads: 3,754
"We're bringing out a new application monitoring system to the DevOps space. It manages large enterprise applications that are distributed throughout a node in many enterprises and we manage them as one collective," explained Kevin Barnes, President of eCube Systems, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at DevOps at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
Jan. 19, 2017 04:15 PM EST Reads: 5,401
In his General Session at 17th Cloud Expo, Bruce Swann, Senior Product Marketing Manager for Adobe Campaign, explored the key ingredients of cross-channel marketing in a digital world. Learn how the Adobe Marketing Cloud can help marketers embrace opportunities for personalized, relevant and real-time customer engagement across offline (direct mail, point of sale, call center) and digital (email, website, SMS, mobile apps, social networks, connected objects).
Jan. 19, 2017 04:00 PM EST Reads: 5,426
SYS-CON Events announced today that Catchpoint, a leading digital experience intelligence company, has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Catchpoint Systems is a leading Digital Performance Analytics company that provides unparalleled insight into your customer-critical services to help you consistently deliver an amazing customer experience. Designed for digital business, C...
Jan. 19, 2017 03:45 PM EST Reads: 1,790
A look across the tech landscape at the disruptive technologies that are increasing in prominence and speculate as to which will be most impactful for communications – namely, AI and Cloud Computing. In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Curtis Peterson, VP of Operations at RingCentral, will highlight the current challenges of these transformative technologies and share strategies for preparing your organization for these changes. This “view from the top” will outline the latest trends and developm...
Jan. 19, 2017 03:30 PM EST Reads: 1,030
"There's a growing demand from users for things to be faster. When you think about all the transactions or interactions users will have with your product and everything that is between those transactions and interactions - what drives us at Catchpoint Systems is the idea to measure that and to analyze it," explained Leo Vasiliou, Director of Web Performance Engineering at Catchpoint Systems, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York Ci...
Jan. 19, 2017 01:15 PM EST Reads: 5,668
The 20th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. Cloud Expo, to be held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, brings together Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, Containers, Microservices and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportunity. Submit your speaking proposal ...
Jan. 19, 2017 01:15 PM EST Reads: 5,161
"Avere Systems is a hybrid cloud solution provider. We have customers that want to use cloud storage and we have customers that want to take advantage of cloud compute," explained Rebecca Thompson, VP of Marketing at Avere Systems, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
Jan. 19, 2017 12:45 PM EST Reads: 6,358
SYS-CON Events announced today that Dataloop.IO, an innovator in cloud IT-monitoring whose products help organizations save time and money, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Dataloop.IO is an emerging software company on the cutting edge of major IT-infrastructure trends including cloud computing and microservices. The company, founded in the UK but now based in San Fran...
Jan. 19, 2017 12:45 PM EST Reads: 2,545
20th Cloud Expo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy.
Jan. 19, 2017 12:15 PM EST Reads: 4,309
SYS-CON Events announced today that Linux Academy, the foremost online Linux and cloud training platform and community, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Linux Academy was founded on the belief that providing high-quality, in-depth training should be available at an affordable price. Industry leaders in quality training, provided services, and student certification passes, its goal is to c...
Jan. 19, 2017 12:15 PM EST Reads: 2,013
The unique combination of Amazon Web Services and Cloud Raxak, a Gartner Cool Vendor in IT Automation, provides a seamless and cost-effective way of securely moving on-premise IT workloads to Amazon Web Services. Any enterprise can now leverage the cloud, manage risk, and maintain continuous security compliance. Forrester's analysis shows that enterprises need automated security to lower security risk and decrease IT operational costs. Through the seamless integration into Amazon Web Services, ...
Jan. 19, 2017 12:00 PM EST Reads: 1,913
In the next five to ten years, millions, if not billions of things will become smarter. This smartness goes beyond connected things in our homes like the fridge, thermostat and fancy lighting, and into heavily regulated industries including aerospace, pharmaceutical/medical devices and energy. “Smartness” will embed itself within individual products that are part of our daily lives. We will engage with smart products - learning from them, informing them, and communicating with them. Smart produc...
Jan. 19, 2017 11:45 AM EST Reads: 1,719
"What is the next step in the evolution of IoT systems? The answer is data, information, which is a radical shift from assets, from things to input for decision making," stated Michael Minkevich, VP of Technology Services at Luxoft, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Jan. 19, 2017 10:00 AM EST Reads: 5,564
SYS-CON Events announced today that Catchpoint Systems, Inc., a provider of innovative web and infrastructure monitoring solutions, has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's DevOps Summit at 18th Cloud Expo New York, which will take place June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Catchpoint is a leading Digital Performance Analytics company that provides unparalleled insight into customer-critical services to help consistently deliver an amazing customer experience. Designed ...
Jan. 19, 2017 07:45 AM EST Reads: 6,351
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place June 6-8, 2017 at the Javits Center in New York City, New York, is co-located with the 20th International Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. @ThingsExpo New York Call for Papers is now open.
Jan. 19, 2017 07:30 AM EST Reads: 3,659
Every successful software product evolves from an idea to an enterprise system. Notably, the same way is passed by the product owner's company. In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Oleg Lola, CEO of MobiDev, will provide a generalized overview of the evolution of a software product, the product owner, the needs that arise at various stages of this process, and the value brought by a software development partner to the product owner as a response to these needs.
Jan. 19, 2017 07:00 AM EST Reads: 1,226
Smart Cities are here to stay, but for their promise to be delivered, the data they produce must not be put in new siloes. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mathias Herberts, Co-founder and CTO of Cityzen Data, discussed the best practices that will ensure a successful smart city journey.
Jan. 19, 2017 07:00 AM EST Reads: 2,031
In 2014, Amazon announced a new form of compute called Lambda. We didn't know it at the time, but this represented a fundamental shift in what we expect from cloud computing. Now, all of the major cloud computing vendors want to take part in this disruptive technology. In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, John Jelinek IV, a web developer at Linux Academy, will discuss why major players like AWS, Microsoft Azure, IBM Bluemix, and Google Cloud Platform are all trying to sidestep VMs and containers...
Jan. 19, 2017 06:00 AM EST Reads: 872