Welcome!

@BigDataExpo Authors: Elizabeth White, Pat Romanski, John Basso, Peter Silva, Liz McMillan

Related Topics: @BigDataExpo, Java IoT, Microservices Expo, @CloudExpo, Apache, Cloud Security

@BigDataExpo: Blog Feed Post

How to Secure Hadoop Without Touching It

Combining API Security and Hadoop

It sounds like a parlor trick, but one of the benefits of API centric de-facto standards  such as REST and JSON is they allow relatively seamless communication between software systems.

This makes it possible to combine technologies to instantly bring out new capabilities. In particular I want to talk about how an API Gateway can improve the security posture of a Hadoop installation without having to actually modify Hadoop itself. Sounds too good to be true? Read on.

Hadoop and RESTful APIs
Hadoop is mostly a behind the firewall affair, and APIs are generally used for exposing data or capabilities for other systems, users or mobile devices. In the case of Hadoop there are three main RESTful APIs to talk about. This list isn’t exhaustive but it covers the main APIs.

  1. WebHDFS – Offers complete control over files and directories in HDFS
  2. HBase REST API – Offers access to insert, create, delete, single/multiple cell values
  3. HCatalog REST API – Provides job control for Map/Reduce, Pig and Hive as well as to access and manipulate HCatalog DDL data

These APIs are very useful because anyone with an HTTP client can potentially manipulate data in Hadoop. This, of course, is like using a knife all-blade – it’s very easy to cut yourself. To take an example, WebHDFS allows RESTful calls for directory listings, creating new directories and files, as well as file deletion. Worse,  the default security model requires nothing more than inserting “root” into the HTTP call.

To its credit, most distributions of Hadoop also offer Kerberos SPNEGO authentication, but additional work is needed to support other types of authentication and authorization schemes, and not all REST calls that expose sensitive data (such as a list of files) are secured. Here are some of the other challenges:

  • Fragmented Enforcement – Some REST calls leak information and require no credentials
  • Developer Centric Interfaces – Full Java stack traces are passed back to callers, leaking system details
  • Resource Protection – The Namenode is a single point of failure and excessive WebHDFS activity may threaten the cluster
  • Consistent Security Policy – All APIs in Hadoop must be independently configured, managed and audited over time

This list is just a start, and to be fair, Hadoop is still evolving. We expect things to get better over time, but for Enterprises to unlock value from their “Big Data” projects now, they can’t afford to wait until security is perfect.

One model used in other domains is an API Gateway or proxy that sits between the Hadoop cluster and the client. Using this model, the cluster only trusts calls from the gateway and all potential API callers are forced to use the gateway. Further, the gateway capabilities are rich enough and expressive enough to perform the full depth and breadth of security for REST calls from authentication to message level security, tokenization, throttling, denial of service protection, attack protection and data translation. Even better, this provides a safe and effective way to expose Hadoop to mobile devices without worrying about performance, scalability and security.  Here is the conceptual picture:

Intel Expressway API Manager and Intel Distribution of Apache Hadoop

In the previous diagram we are showing the Intel(R) Expressway API Manager acting as a proxy for WebHDFS, HBase and HCatalog APIs exposed from Intel’s Hadoop distribution. API Manager exposes RESTful APIs and also provides an out of the box subscription to Mashery to help evangelize APIs among a community of developers.

All of the policy enforcement is done at the HTTP layer by the gateway and the security administrator is free to rewrite the API to be more user friendly to the caller and the gateway will take care of mapping and rewriting the REST call to the format supported by Hadoop. In short, this model lets you provide instant Enterprise security for a good chunk of Hadoop capabilities without having to add a plug-in, additional code or a special distribution of Hadoop. So… just what can you do without touching Hadoop? To take WebHDFS as an example the following is possible with some configuration on the gateway itself:

  1. A gateway can lock-down the standard WebHDFS REST API and allow access only for specific users based on an Enterprise identity that may be stored in LDAP, Active Directory, Oracle, Siteminder, IBM or Relational Databases.
  2. A gateway provides additional authentication methods such as X.509 certificates with CRL and OCSP checking, OAuth token handling, API keys support, WS-Security and SSL termination & acceleration for WebHDFS API calls. The gateway can expose secure versions of the WebDHFS API for external access
  3. A gateway can improve on the security model used by WebHDFS which carries identities in HTTP query parameters, which are more susceptible to credential leakage compared to a security model based on HTTP headers. The gateway can expose a variant of the WebHDFS API that expects credentials in the HTTP header and seamlessly maps this to the WebHDFS internal format
  4. The gateway workflow engine can maps a single function REST call into multiple WebHDFS calls. For example, the WebHDFS REST API requires two separate HTTP calls for file creation and file upload. The gateway can expose a single API for this that handles the sequential execution and error handling, exposing a single function to the user
  5. The gateway can strip and redact Java exception traces carried in the WebHDFS REST API responses ( for instance, JSON responses may carry org.apache.hadoop.security.AccessControlException.* which can spill details beneficial to an attacker
  6. The gateway can throttle and rate shape WebHDFS REST requests which can protect the Hadoop cluster from resource consumption from excessive HDFS writes, open file handles and excessive  create, read, update and delete operations which might impact a running job.

This list is just the start, API manager can also perform selective encryption and data protection (such as PCI tokenization or PII format preserving encryption) on data as it is inserted or deleted from the Hadoop cluster, all by sitting in-between the caller and the cluster. So the parlor trick here is really moving the problem from trying to secure hadoop from the inside out to moving and centralizing security to the enforcement point. If you are looking for a way to expose “Big Data” outside the cluster, an the API Gateway model may be worth some investigation!

Blake

 

The post How to secure Hadoop without touching it – combining API Security and Hadoop appeared first on Security [email protected].

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Application Security

This blog references our expert posts on application and web services security.

@BigDataExpo Stories
When it comes to IoT in the enterprise, namely the commercial building and hospitality markets, a benefit not getting the attention it deserves is energy efficiency, and IoT's direct impact on a cleaner, greener environment when installed in smart buildings. Until now clean technology was offered piecemeal and led with point solutions that require significant systems integration to orchestrate and deploy. There didn't exist a 'top down' approach that can manage and monitor the way a Smart Buildi...
So, you bought into the current machine learning craze and went on to collect millions/billions of records from this promising new data source. Now, what do you do with them? Too often, the abundance of data quickly turns into an abundance of problems. How do you extract that "magic essence" from your data without falling into the common pitfalls? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Natalia Ponomareva, Software Engineer at Google, will provide tips on how to be successful in large scale machine lear...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Peak 10, Inc., a national IT infrastructure and cloud services provider, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Peak 10 provides reliable, tailored data center and network services, cloud and managed services. Its solutions are designed to scale and adapt to customers’ changing business needs, enabling them to lower costs, improve performance and focus inter...
You think you know what’s in your data. But do you? Most organizations are now aware of the business intelligence represented by their data. Data science stands to take this to a level you never thought of – literally. The techniques of data science, when used with the capabilities of Big Data technologies, can make connections you had not yet imagined, helping you discover new insights and ask new questions of your data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sarbjit Sarkaria, data science team lead ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Ericsson has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Ericsson is a world leader in the rapidly changing environment of communications technology – providing equipment, software and services to enable transformation through mobility. Some 40 percent of global mobile traffic runs through networks we have supplied. More than 1 billion subscribers around the world re...
Many private cloud projects were built to deliver self-service access to development and test resources. While those clouds delivered faster access to resources, they lacked visibility, control and security needed for production deployments. In their session at 18th Cloud Expo, Steve Anderson, Product Manager at BMC Software, and Rick Lefort, Principal Technical Marketing Consultant at BMC Software, will discuss how a cloud designed for production operations not only helps accelerate developer...
The IoTs will challenge the status quo of how IT and development organizations operate. Or will it? Certainly the fog layer of IoT requires special insights about data ontology, security and transactional integrity. But the developmental challenges are the same: People, Process and Platform. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Craig Sproule, CEO of Metavine, will demonstrate how to move beyond today's coding paradigm and share the must-have mindsets for removing complexity from the development proc...
Artificial Intelligence has the potential to massively disrupt IoT. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, AJ Abdallat, CEO of Beyond AI, will discuss what the five main drivers are in Artificial Intelligence that could shape the future of the Internet of Things. AJ Abdallat is CEO of Beyond AI. He has over 20 years of management experience in the fields of artificial intelligence, sensors, instruments, devices and software for telecommunications, life sciences, environmental monitoring, process...
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Klein, CEO and Co-founder of Rachio, will discuss next generation communities that are using IoT to create more sustainable, intelligent communities. One example is Sterling Ranch, a 10,000 home development that – with the help of Siemens – will integrate IoT technology into the community to provide residents with energy and water savings as well as intelligent security. Everything from stop lights to sprinkler systems to building infrastructures will run ef...
We’ve worked with dozens of early adopters across numerous industries and will debunk common misperceptions, which starts with understanding that many of the connected products we’ll use over the next 5 years are already products, they’re just not yet connected. With an IoT product, time-in-market provides much more essential feedback than ever before. Innovation comes from what you do with the data that the connected product provides in order to enhance the customer experience and optimize busi...
Manufacturers are embracing the Industrial Internet the same way consumers are leveraging Fitbits – to improve overall health and wellness. Both can provide consistent measurement, visibility, and suggest performance improvements customized to help reach goals. Fitbit users can view real-time data and make adjustments to increase their activity. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mark Bernardo Professional Services Leader, Americas, at GE Digital, will discuss how leveraging the Industrial Interne...
In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Sagi Brody, Chief Technology Officer at Webair Internet Development Inc., will focus on real world deployments of DDoS mitigation strategies in every layer of the network. He will give an overview of methods to prevent these attacks and best practices on how to provide protection in complex cloud platforms. He will also outline what we have found in our experience managing and running thousands of Linux and Unix managed service platforms and what specifically c...
The increasing popularity of the Internet of Things necessitates that our physical and cognitive relationship with wearable technology will change rapidly in the near future. This advent means logging has become a thing of the past. Before, it was on us to track our own data, but now that data is automatically available. What does this mean for mHealth and the "connected" body? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Lisa Calkins, CEO and co-founder of Amadeus Consulting, will discuss the impact of wea...
Increasing IoT connectivity is forcing enterprises to find elegant solutions to organize and visualize all incoming data from these connected devices with re-configurable dashboard widgets to effectively allow rapid decision-making for everything from immediate actions in tactical situations to strategic analysis and reporting. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Shikhir Singh, Senior Developer Relations Manager at Sencha, will discuss how to create HTML5 dashboards that interact with IoT devic...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM Company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. SoftLayer, an IBM Company, provides cloud infrastructure as a service from a growing number of data centers and network points of presence around the world. SoftLayer’s customers range from Web startups to global enterprises.
A critical component of any IoT project is the back-end systems that capture data from remote IoT devices and structure it in a way to answer useful questions. Traditional data warehouse and analytical systems are mature technologies that can be used to handle large data sets, but they are not well suited to many IoT-scale products and the need for real-time insights. At Fuze, we have developed a backend platform as part of our mobility-oriented cloud service that uses Big Data-based approache...
There is an ever-growing explosion of new devices that are connected to the Internet using “cloud” solutions. This rapid growth is creating a massive new demand for efficient access to data. And it’s not just about connecting to that data anymore. This new demand is bringing new issues and challenges and it is important for companies to scale for the coming growth. And with that scaling comes the need for greater security, gathering and data analysis, storage, connectivity and, of course, the...
The IETF draft standard for M2M certificates is a security solution specifically designed for the demanding needs of IoT/M2M applications. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Brian Romansky, VP of Strategic Technology at TrustPoint Innovation, will explain how M2M certificates can efficiently enable confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity on highly constrained devices.
Unless you don’t use the internet, don’t live in California, or haven’t been paying attention to the recent news… you should be aware that self-driving cars are on their way to becoming a reality. I have seen them – they are real. If you believe in the future reality of self-driving cars, then continue reading on. If you don’t believe in the future possibilities, then I am not sure what to do to convince you other than discuss the very real changes that will roll out with the consumer producti...
Up until last year, enterprises that were looking into cloud services usually undertook a long-term pilot with one of the large cloud providers, running test and dev workloads in the cloud. With cloud’s transition to mainstream adoption in 2015, and with enterprises migrating more and more workloads into the cloud and in between public and private environments, the single-provider approach must be revisited. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Yoav Mor, multi-cloud solution evangelist at Cloudy...