Welcome!

@BigDataExpo Authors: Elizabeth White, Liz McMillan, Yeshim Deniz, Matt Brickey, Christoph Schell

Blog Feed Post

Quick MapReduce with beanstalkd

At ProjectLocker, we operate a polyglot environment with a heavy Ruby bias. While we love Ruby and Rails, one of the drawbacks of Ruby is its Global VM Lock. In a nutshell, the Global VM Lock makes it harder to write Ruby code that can fully utilize a modern multi-core server. For Web applications, this isn’t a problem because the web server manages multiple processes for you (e.g. via Passenger). However, for offline processes, parallelism doesn’t come for free.

I was recently working on a project that involved the offline batch processing of lots of data. This project has been operating successfully for some time, but the data set has grown, causing the process to need more more time to complete than we’d like. So I dove in to see what we could do to speed it up. Fortunately, the process was still single-threaded, so we knew we’d be able to inject concurrency to increase throughput without adding hardware.

The job in question runs on a fairly well-equipped server, but the server was underutilized due to the process being serial. Here’s an outline of the initial code:

def main_job
  for retrieve_giant_dataset().each do |item|
    long_process(item)
  end

  summarize_results(retrieve_all_results()) 
end

def long_process(item)
  # Do some work on item that uses a lot of CPU time.
  item.save
end

That approach gets the job done, but I wanted to parallelize it. Conceptually, I wanted to transform the main_job method so that it looked something like this:

def main_job
  threads = []
  for retrieve_giant_dataset().each do |item|
    threads << Thread.new(item) do
      long_process(item)
    end
  end

  threads.each { |t| t.join }

  summarize_results(retrieve_all_results()) 
end

Unfortunately, it’s not that easy due to the aforementioned Global VM Lock. What I needed was a way to get my threads running on a bunch of independent processes. This is a problem tailor-made for a job queueing system. Enter beanstalkd, a simple & fast work queue. We paired beanstalkd with Stalker, a DSL that makes it easy to queue and process jobs from Ruby. Integrating these two was a cinch. Here’s what the restructured code looks like now:

def main_job
  for retrieve_giant_dataset().each do |item|
    Stalker.enqueue(JOB_NAME, :id => item.id)
  end

  beaneater = Beaneater::Pool.new(['localhost:11300'])
  tube = beaneater.tubes.find TUBE_NAME
  while tube.peek(:ready)
    sleep(5)
  end

  summarize_results(retrieve_all_results()) 
end

So instead of processing each item during the loop, now we just add each to the beanstalkd queue. Once we finish queueing all of the items, we wait until all of our entries have been processed by the worker processes. The workers are initiated via a jobs.rb file that looks something like this:

include Stalker
  
job JOB_NAME do |args|
  item = ItemClass.find(args['id'])
  Worker::long_process(item) 
end

We then start beanstalkd and a few worker processes and we’re off to the races. Now our job runs in parallel via multiple processes, and we can tune the number of worker processes we run to consume as much of the machine’s resources as we like. As a bonus, we can also run Stalker workers on other machines in our cluster for added parallelism. With just a few minor tweaks to our code, we’ve gone from single-threaded to a solution that is limited only by the capacity of the shared database used. Sweet!

What about the MapReduce reference in the title of this post? The MapReduce algorithm basically has two steps. In the Map step, you divide the work and assign it to worker nodes. The Reduce step simply combines the results of each individual node’s computation into an aggregate result. In our solution here, the Map step is done by us enqueuing our jobs into beanstalkd and then beanstalkd making the jobs available for consumption by our nodes. Our database serves to communicate the details of the jobs, and stands in for a shared filesystem like the HDFS used by Hadoop. I didn’t go into detail about this step, but our Reduce is also assisted by database aggregates; we’re able to construct a few simple queries that get us what we want from the database.

So there it is, distributed MapReduce for Ruby using beanstalkd, Stalker, and a healthy database. This is probably not the best solution if you need to scale to thousands or tens of thousands of workers. But if you just need to get tens of workers running in parallel quickly, you may be able to adapt this approach to fit your needs.

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Damon Young

Damon Young is Director of Sales at ProjectLocker.com. ProjectLocker was founded in 2003 to provide on-demand tools for software developers. Guided by the simple mission of helping companies build better software, ProjectLocker's services have expanded to include services for the complete lifecycle of software projects, from requirements documentation to build and test automation. ProjectLocker serves companies from startups to Fortune 1000 multinationals.

@BigDataExpo Stories
"With Digital Experience Monitoring what used to be a simple visit to a web page has exploded into app on phones, data from social media feeds, competitive benchmarking - these are all components that are only available because of some type of digital asset," explained Leo Vasiliou, Director of Web Performance Engineering at Catchpoint Systems, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at DevOps Summit at 20th Cloud Expo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
21st International Cloud Expo, taking place October 31 - November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Me...
SYS-CON Events announced today that DXWorldExpo has been named “Global Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Digital Transformation is the key issue driving the global enterprise IT business. Digital Transformation is most prominent among Global 2000 enterprises and government institutions.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Datera, that offers a radically new data management architecture, has been named "Exhibitor" of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo ®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Datera is transforming the traditional datacenter model through modern cloud simplicity. The technology industry is at another major inflection point. The rise of mobile, the Internet of Things, data storage and Big...
"Outscale was founded in 2010, is based in France, is a strategic partner to Dassault Systémes and has done quite a bit of work with divisions of Dassault," explained Jackie Funk, Digital Marketing exec at Outscale, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 20th Cloud Expo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
"We focus on SAP workloads because they are among the most powerful but somewhat challenging workloads out there to take into public cloud," explained Swen Conrad, CEO of Ocean9, Inc., in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 20th Cloud Expo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
"We provide IoT solutions. We provide the most compatible solutions for many applications. Our solutions are industry agnostic and also protocol agnostic," explained Richard Han, Head of Sales and Marketing and Engineering at Systena America, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
"We are still a relatively small software house and we are focusing on certain industries like FinTech, med tech, energy and utilities. We help our customers with their digital transformation," noted Piotr Stawinski, Founder and CEO of EARP Integration, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 20th Cloud Expo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
"We've been engaging with a lot of customers including Panasonic, we've been involved with Cisco and now we're working with the U.S. government - the Department of Homeland Security," explained Peter Jung, Chief Product Officer at Pulzze Systems, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
"We were founded in 2003 and the way we were founded was about good backup and good disaster recovery for our clients, and for the last 20 years we've been pretty consistent with that," noted Marc Malafronte, Territory Manager at StorageCraft, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 20th Cloud Expo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
"We want to show that our solution is far less expensive with a much better total cost of ownership so we announced several key features. One is called geo-distributed erasure coding, another is support for KVM and we introduced a new capability called Multi-Part," explained Tim Desai, Senior Product Marketing Manager at Hitachi Data Systems, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 20th Cloud Expo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Calligo, an innovative cloud service provider offering mid-sized companies the highest levels of data privacy and security, has been named "Bronze Sponsor" of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo ®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Calligo offers unparalleled application performance guarantees, commercial flexibility and a personalised support service from its globally located cloud plat...
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place October 31 - November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 21st Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterprise IT since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago. All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devic...
"The Striim platform is a full end-to-end streaming integration and analytics platform that is middleware that covers a lot of different use cases," explained Steve Wilkes, Founder and CTO at Striim, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 20th Cloud Expo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
"Peak 10 is a hybrid infrastructure provider across the nation. We are in the thick of things when it comes to hybrid IT," explained Michael Fuhrman, Chief Technology Officer at Peak 10, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 20th Cloud Expo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
"We are focused on SAP running in the clouds, to make this super easy because we believe in the tremendous value of those powerful worlds - SAP and the cloud," explained Frank Stienhans, CTO of Ocean9, Inc., in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 20th Cloud Expo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
DX World EXPO, LLC., a Lighthouse Point, Florida-based startup trade show producer and the creator of "DXWorldEXPO® - Digital Transformation Conference & Expo" has announced its executive management team. The team is headed by Levent Selamoglu, who has been named CEO. "Now is the time for a truly global DX event, to bring together the leading minds from the technology world in a conversation about Digital Transformation," he said in making the announcement.
"MobiDev is a Ukraine-based software development company. We do mobile development, and we're specialists in that. But we do full stack software development for entrepreneurs, for emerging companies, and for enterprise ventures," explained Alan Winters, U.S. Head of Business Development at MobiDev, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 20th Cloud Expo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
"Cloud computing is certainly changing how people consume storage, how they use it, and what they use it for. It's also making people rethink how they architect their environment," stated Brad Winett, Senior Technologist for DDN Storage, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 20th Cloud Expo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
While the focus and objectives of IoT initiatives are many and diverse, they all share a few common attributes, and one of those is the network. Commonly, that network includes the Internet, over which there isn't any real control for performance and availability. Or is there? The current state of the art for Big Data analytics, as applied to network telemetry, offers new opportunities for improving and assuring operational integrity. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jim Frey, Vice President of S...