Welcome!

@BigDataExpo Authors: Elizabeth White, John Basso, Pat Romanski, Liz McMillan, Igor Drobiazko

Blog Feed Post

Quick MapReduce with beanstalkd

At ProjectLocker, we operate a polyglot environment with a heavy Ruby bias. While we love Ruby and Rails, one of the drawbacks of Ruby is its Global VM Lock. In a nutshell, the Global VM Lock makes it harder to write Ruby code that can fully utilize a modern multi-core server. For Web applications, this isn’t a problem because the web server manages multiple processes for you (e.g. via Passenger). However, for offline processes, parallelism doesn’t come for free.

I was recently working on a project that involved the offline batch processing of lots of data. This project has been operating successfully for some time, but the data set has grown, causing the process to need more more time to complete than we’d like. So I dove in to see what we could do to speed it up. Fortunately, the process was still single-threaded, so we knew we’d be able to inject concurrency to increase throughput without adding hardware.

The job in question runs on a fairly well-equipped server, but the server was underutilized due to the process being serial. Here’s an outline of the initial code:

def main_job
  for retrieve_giant_dataset().each do |item|
    long_process(item)
  end

  summarize_results(retrieve_all_results()) 
end

def long_process(item)
  # Do some work on item that uses a lot of CPU time.
  item.save
end

That approach gets the job done, but I wanted to parallelize it. Conceptually, I wanted to transform the main_job method so that it looked something like this:

def main_job
  threads = []
  for retrieve_giant_dataset().each do |item|
    threads << Thread.new(item) do
      long_process(item)
    end
  end

  threads.each { |t| t.join }

  summarize_results(retrieve_all_results()) 
end

Unfortunately, it’s not that easy due to the aforementioned Global VM Lock. What I needed was a way to get my threads running on a bunch of independent processes. This is a problem tailor-made for a job queueing system. Enter beanstalkd, a simple & fast work queue. We paired beanstalkd with Stalker, a DSL that makes it easy to queue and process jobs from Ruby. Integrating these two was a cinch. Here’s what the restructured code looks like now:

def main_job
  for retrieve_giant_dataset().each do |item|
    Stalker.enqueue(JOB_NAME, :id => item.id)
  end

  beaneater = Beaneater::Pool.new(['localhost:11300'])
  tube = beaneater.tubes.find TUBE_NAME
  while tube.peek(:ready)
    sleep(5)
  end

  summarize_results(retrieve_all_results()) 
end

So instead of processing each item during the loop, now we just add each to the beanstalkd queue. Once we finish queueing all of the items, we wait until all of our entries have been processed by the worker processes. The workers are initiated via a jobs.rb file that looks something like this:

include Stalker
  
job JOB_NAME do |args|
  item = ItemClass.find(args['id'])
  Worker::long_process(item) 
end

We then start beanstalkd and a few worker processes and we’re off to the races. Now our job runs in parallel via multiple processes, and we can tune the number of worker processes we run to consume as much of the machine’s resources as we like. As a bonus, we can also run Stalker workers on other machines in our cluster for added parallelism. With just a few minor tweaks to our code, we’ve gone from single-threaded to a solution that is limited only by the capacity of the shared database used. Sweet!

What about the MapReduce reference in the title of this post? The MapReduce algorithm basically has two steps. In the Map step, you divide the work and assign it to worker nodes. The Reduce step simply combines the results of each individual node’s computation into an aggregate result. In our solution here, the Map step is done by us enqueuing our jobs into beanstalkd and then beanstalkd making the jobs available for consumption by our nodes. Our database serves to communicate the details of the jobs, and stands in for a shared filesystem like the HDFS used by Hadoop. I didn’t go into detail about this step, but our Reduce is also assisted by database aggregates; we’re able to construct a few simple queries that get us what we want from the database.

So there it is, distributed MapReduce for Ruby using beanstalkd, Stalker, and a healthy database. This is probably not the best solution if you need to scale to thousands or tens of thousands of workers. But if you just need to get tens of workers running in parallel quickly, you may be able to adapt this approach to fit your needs.

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Damon Young

Damon Young is Director of Sales at ProjectLocker.com. ProjectLocker was founded in 2003 to provide on-demand tools for software developers. Guided by the simple mission of helping companies build better software, ProjectLocker's services have expanded to include services for the complete lifecycle of software projects, from requirements documentation to build and test automation. ProjectLocker serves companies from startups to Fortune 1000 multinationals.

@BigDataExpo Stories
You think you know what’s in your data. But do you? Most organizations are now aware of the business intelligence represented by their data. Data science stands to take this to a level you never thought of – literally. The techniques of data science, when used with the capabilities of Big Data technologies, can make connections you had not yet imagined, helping you discover new insights and ask new questions of your data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sarbjit Sarkaria, data science team lead ...
Unless you don’t use the internet, don’t live in California, or haven’t been paying attention to the recent news… you should be aware that self-driving cars are on their way to becoming a reality. I have seen them – they are real. If you believe in the future reality of self-driving cars, then continue reading on. If you don’t believe in the future possibilities, then I am not sure what to do to convince you other than discuss the very real changes that will roll out with the consumer producti...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Men & Mice, the leading global provider of DNS, DHCP and IP address management overlay solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The Men & Mice Suite overlay solution is already known for its powerful application in heterogeneous operating environments, enabling enterprises to scale without fuss. Building on a solid range of diverse platform support,...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Peak 10, Inc., a national IT infrastructure and cloud services provider, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Peak 10 provides reliable, tailored data center and network services, cloud and managed services. Its solutions are designed to scale and adapt to customers’ changing business needs, enabling them to lower costs, improve performance and focus inter...
You deployed your app with the Bluemix PaaS and it's gaining some serious traction, so it's time to make some tweaks. Did you design your application in a way that it can scale in the cloud? Were you even thinking about the cloud when you built the app? If not, chances are your app is going to break. Check out this webcast to learn various techniques for designing applications that will scale successfully in Bluemix, for the confidence you need to take your apps to the next level and beyond.
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Klein, CEO and Co-founder of Rachio, will discuss next generation communities that are using IoT to create more sustainable, intelligent communities. One example is Sterling Ranch, a 10,000 home development that – with the help of Siemens – will integrate IoT technology into the community to provide residents with energy and water savings as well as intelligent security. Everything from stop lights to sprinkler systems to building infrastructures will run ef...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM Company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. SoftLayer, an IBM Company, provides cloud infrastructure as a service from a growing number of data centers and network points of presence around the world. SoftLayer’s customers range from Web startups to global enterprises.
So, you bought into the current machine learning craze and went on to collect millions/billions of records from this promising new data source. Now, what do you do with them? Too often, the abundance of data quickly turns into an abundance of problems. How do you extract that "magic essence" from your data without falling into the common pitfalls? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Natalia Ponomareva, Software Engineer at Google, will provide tips on how to be successful in large scale machine lear...
Artificial Intelligence has the potential to massively disrupt IoT. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, AJ Abdallat, CEO of Beyond AI, will discuss what the five main drivers are in Artificial Intelligence that could shape the future of the Internet of Things. AJ Abdallat is CEO of Beyond AI. He has over 20 years of management experience in the fields of artificial intelligence, sensors, instruments, devices and software for telecommunications, life sciences, environmental monitoring, process...
Increasing IoT connectivity is forcing enterprises to find elegant solutions to organize and visualize all incoming data from these connected devices with re-configurable dashboard widgets to effectively allow rapid decision-making for everything from immediate actions in tactical situations to strategic analysis and reporting. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Shikhir Singh, Senior Developer Relations Manager at Sencha, will discuss how to create HTML5 dashboards that interact with IoT devic...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Ericsson has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Ericsson is a world leader in the rapidly changing environment of communications technology – providing equipment, software and services to enable transformation through mobility. Some 40 percent of global mobile traffic runs through networks we have supplied. More than 1 billion subscribers around the world re...
There is an ever-growing explosion of new devices that are connected to the Internet using “cloud” solutions. This rapid growth is creating a massive new demand for efficient access to data. And it’s not just about connecting to that data anymore. This new demand is bringing new issues and challenges and it is important for companies to scale for the coming growth. And with that scaling comes the need for greater security, gathering and data analysis, storage, connectivity and, of course, the...
SYS-CON Events announced today that DatacenterDynamics has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7–9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. DatacenterDynamics is a brand of DCD Group, a global B2B media and publishing company that develops products to help senior professionals in the world's most ICT dependent organizations make risk-based infrastructure and capacity decisions.
Machine Learning helps make complex systems more efficient. By applying advanced Machine Learning techniques such as Cognitive Fingerprinting, wind project operators can utilize these tools to learn from collected data, detect regular patterns, and optimize their own operations. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Stuart Gillen, Director of Business Development at SparkCognition, will discuss how research has demonstrated the value of Machine Learning in delivering next generation analytics to im...
Up until last year, enterprises that were looking into cloud services usually undertook a long-term pilot with one of the large cloud providers, running test and dev workloads in the cloud. With cloud’s transition to mainstream adoption in 2015, and with enterprises migrating more and more workloads into the cloud and in between public and private environments, the single-provider approach must be revisited. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Yoav Mor, multi-cloud solution evangelist at Cloudy...
This is not a small hotel event. It is also not a big vendor party where politicians and entertainers are more important than real content. This is Cloud Expo, the world's longest-running conference and exhibition focused on Cloud Computing and all that it entails. If you want serious presentations and valuable insight about Cloud Computing for three straight days, then register now for Cloud Expo.
IoT device adoption is growing at staggering rates, and with it comes opportunity for developers to meet consumer demand for an ever more connected world. Wireless communication is the key part of the encompassing components of any IoT device. Wireless connectivity enhances the device utility at the expense of ease of use and deployment challenges. Since connectivity is fundamental for IoT device development, engineers must understand how to overcome the hurdles inherent in incorporating multipl...
The increasing popularity of the Internet of Things necessitates that our physical and cognitive relationship with wearable technology will change rapidly in the near future. This advent means logging has become a thing of the past. Before, it was on us to track our own data, but now that data is automatically available. What does this mean for mHealth and the "connected" body? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Lisa Calkins, CEO and co-founder of Amadeus Consulting, will discuss the impact of wea...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Stratoscale, the software company developing the next generation data center operating system, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Stratoscale is revolutionizing the data center with a zero-to-cloud-in-minutes solution. With Stratoscale’s hardware-agnostic, Software Defined Data Center (SDDC) solution to store everything, run anything and scale everywhere...
Many private cloud projects were built to deliver self-service access to development and test resources. While those clouds delivered faster access to resources, they lacked visibility, control and security needed for production deployments. In their session at 18th Cloud Expo, Steve Anderson, Product Manager at BMC Software, and Rick Lefort, Principal Technical Marketing Consultant at BMC Software, will discuss how a cloud designed for production operations not only helps accelerate developer...